Questions about Hebrew grammar as related to Judaism.

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28 views

Shabbat, Shabbatot, Shabbaton?

What is the difference between the terms Shabbat, Shabbatot and Shabbaton? And to what are they refering to? And why is the Shabbat called a Shabbat - Shabbaton? Vayikra 23:3 for example. What does ...
8
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2answers
188 views

(Ki) Ani Hashem Elokeihem

Twenty-seven times (by my count) in Torah and in Ezekiel, we find the phrase אני ה׳ אלקיכם or אני ה׳ אלקיהם at the end of a pasuk (for example, Lev 25:55). In eight of these cases, the phrase is ...
2
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2answers
71 views

vowels for Mishna

The phrase "Lo Ki" occurs in Tanach and in Mishna. Genesis 18, 15. וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ׀ לֹ֖א כִּ֥י צָחָֽקְתְּ׃‏ Trumot 2, 5: רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא חֲצִי בָצָל גָּדוֹל ‏ shekalim 1, ...
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0answers
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Makaf in כי-תראה but not in כי תפגע

In Mishpatim 23:4-5, why is there a makaf in כי-תראה but not in כי תפגע? The words are very similar. As far as I can tell the only difference is that the patach at the end of תפגע ends in an ע, ...
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0answers
26 views

Nation, people, kingdom?

What definitions fit the most with these words: לאם/לאום (l'om) עם (am) גוי (goy) ממלכה (mamlachah) They are all refering to Israel and the other people in the world; but how do i understand them ...
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2answers
114 views

What is the proper grammatical usage of *hamentaschen*? [closed]

Possibilities: singular / plural hamentasch / hamentaschim (as seen here) hamentaschen / hamentaschen I believe the second option prevails colloquially. Is there a correct/incorrect usage of this ...
3
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0answers
42 views

“This meat is for Peisach” with a tzeirei

Based on this question. Many (most?) Ashkenazim in America say Pesach, with a segol, when talking about the korban pesach, but Peisach, with a tzeirei, to refer to the holiday. As far as I know, the ...
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1answer
39 views

Deuteronomy 6:7 and 8:10 - Why are the words pronounced “Milra”?

I'm relaying this question from my shul's chazzan to me, who is a Torah reader. I'm stumped... Deuteronomy 8:10: וְאָכַלְתָּ֖ וְשָׂבָ֑עְתָּ וּבֵֽרַכְתָּ֙ אֶת־יְהוָ֣ה אֱלֹהֶ֔יךָ עַל־הָאָ֥רֶץ ...
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0answers
156 views

Is the rule of “Nasog Achor” specific to the Bible?

In Torah reading, there is a rule of "Nasog Achor". The rule is as follows: Usually, Hebrew words get the accent (and trope note) on the last syllable. However, if the word following it has its ...
3
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1answer
48 views

Why the person switches in Shemos 14:2-4?

Shemos 14:2-4: דבר, אל-בני ישראל, וישובו ויחנו לפני פי החירות, בין מגדול ובין הים: לפני בעל צפון, נכחו תחנו על-הים.‏ ואמר פרעה לבני ישראל, נבוכים הם בארץ; סגר עליהם, המדבר.‏ ...
5
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1answer
40 views

Understanding derivation of rule that “פרו ורבו” is mandatory only for men?

The Gmara (Yevamot 65b) says that the reason why men are the only ones that have to keep "פרו ורבו" is because right after it its written "וכבשוה" (the human has to take over the world), and men are ...
4
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1answer
486 views

Difference between El and Eloah

El(אל) and Eloah(אלוה) are both singular forms (nouns), but its אל thats being used to form the plural Elim (אלים), and אלוה thats being used to form the plural Elohim (אלוה׳ם). Both singular forms ...
8
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1answer
200 views

Is there a difference in meaning between קָדֹֽשׁ and קֹֽדֶשׁ?

I am helping my son lain parshat Emor. He's having a hard time seeing the difference between קֹֽדֶשׁ and קָדֹ֥שׁ esp. when they are written the same. Usually, when I train students to lain, I try to ...
11
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2answers
122 views

Grammar question in Vayera

I've been learning Bereshit with Rashi in school, and while reading a part of Vayera, I noticed that there were two grammatically different statements in one Pesuk. Bereshit (18:7) וְאֶל ...
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7answers
238 views

Ḥaser form of writing “Jerusalem” in the Bible

It seems that Jerusalem is always written "ḥaser" (defective) in the Bible: that is, as ירושלם, without the י/yud, as opposed "malei" (full), as ירושלים. See, for example, Isaiah 62:6. This presents a ...
5
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2answers
341 views

how do you pronounce the soft reish?

from the sefer yetzirah it seems that there is both a hard and soft letter reish (see 4th perek, aryeh kaplan edition). How do you pronounce the soft reish?
12
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3answers
4k views

Two words for “redeem”: what's the difference?

When we talk about "redeeming" a first-born son or a captive, we use "pidyon" (root פדה). When we talk about what God does for us we use "goel" (גאל). My dictionary translates both of these roots as ...
5
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1answer
94 views

Why not פִּטְדָּֽה?

Exodus 28:17 and 39:10 tell that the second stone in the first row of the breastplate of the high priest was פִּטְדָֽה (often translated as topaz). The first unaccented syllable is פִּטְ which is a ...
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3answers
176 views

Where can one learn the grammatical functions of the te'amim

I can chant the melodies of the te'amim but I'm having a hard time learning their grammatical functions and structure. Many websites that talk about the te'amim are quick to jump into the ideas of ...
3
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1answer
160 views

What is the proper pronunciation of ומפז?

Tehilim 19 which is said Shabbos morning at Shacharis has the following Posuk הנחמדים מזהב ומפז רב. I have seen Artscroll Sedurim with a Patach under the Pei of UmiPaz and I have seen Artscroll ...
8
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2answers
152 views

Is there a reason or pattern as to when the Torah uses אֵת instead of אֶת?

I noticed a mix of the two forms of the Hebrew objective marker commonly pronounced אֶת. in the Torah. (There is no English translation of this word. It is used only to notify that an object follows ...
2
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0answers
43 views

In Genesis 6:3, How Should the Context Affect Interpretation of “To Contend/Plead”?

Disclaimer: There are A LOT of pieces to this I don't understand, which is making it very difficult to ask: I would appreciate your suggestions! 1. Question : Genesis 6:3 -... My Spirit will ...
2
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0answers
36 views

Are most of the verbs in Kaddish in reflexive form?

The beginning of Kaddish has the words יתגדל ויתקדש - I know that there is a debate whether these words are Hebrew or Aramaic. Regardless, it looks that these words are in the hitpa'el form (I'm ...
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1answer
50 views

what vowels is the gemora trying to replace the word ּיִקְנְוּ with יִקָנו or יַׁקְנו

I was learning with my chavrusa i used the Hebrew artscroll and he used the English version we bumped into this gemora, הכא כתיב (דברים כב, יג) כי יקח בבעל תלה רחמנא התם נמי כתיב (ירמיהו לב, מד) שדות ...
9
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3answers
207 views

Why דָּת in Esther but דַּת in kidushin?

There are two places "דָּת" appears in Tanach in a form that means "the law of": Esther 2:12 and 9:13. In both places it appears as "דָּת" with a kamatz.[1] Yet, when we marry, according to the ...
3
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2answers
309 views

Should I say shmei or shmeh?

Some Ashkenazim are medakdek to pronounce their Aramaic "correctly". And they know that there is a mapik heh in Amein Yehei ShemeiH Rabba. Thus, יְהֵא שְׁמֵ*הּ* רַבָּא מְבָרַךְ לְעָלַם וּלְעָלְמֵי ...
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0answers
35 views

According to the Vilna Gaon, why doesn't Kaddish open with “יתגדל ויתקדש כרעותיה”?

According to the Vilna Gaon, the opening line of Kaddish is very disjointed. So much so, that most people are, ostensibly, mispronouncing one of the words. Grammatically, it would also work, and it ...
1
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1answer
25 views

Whose opinion is followed by those who say כרעותיה in Kaddish without a dagesh in the כ?

My question on kaddish was well answered. The answer said that the Vilna Gaon preferred the word כּרְעוּתֵהּ with the dagesh in the chaf, because that word is not connected to "ברא", but to the ...
8
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1answer
80 views

כּרְעוּתֵהּ (with a dagesh in the כּ) or כרְעוּתֵהּ (without the dagesh) in Kaddish?

Kaddish starts: יִתְגַּדַּל וְיִתְקַדַּשׁ שְׁמֵהּ רַבָּא. אמן:  בְּעָלְמָא דִּי בְרָא כִרְעוּתֵהּ The siddur HaGr”a has כּרְעוּתֵהּ (with a dagesh in the כּ) and all my other siddurim have כרְעוּתֵהּ ...
9
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0answers
169 views

Why is there a custom to join “Hashem” and “Elokenu” together in the line Al Taazvenu in Shema Kolenu in Selichot

In Shema Kolenu, based on the Posuk in Psalms 38:22 we say the phrase: Al Taazvenu Hashem Elokenu Al tirchak mimenu | Don't leave us Hashem Our God Don't distance yourself from us. The ...
7
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1answer
273 views

Good Talmudic Grammar resource for one unfamiliar with grammar in general?

Inspired by: How to say Adonainu Moreinu VeRabeinu in Aramaic I'd like to understand Talmudic/Aramaic Grammar a little better and am looking for a good resource that will break it down for me. ...
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1answer
42 views

What is the dot in this vav?

What is this dot in the word יִוָּדַ֤ע in Mikeitz 41 31. וְלֹֽא־יִוָּדַ֤ע הַשָּׂבָע֙ בָּאָ֔רֶץ מִפְּנֵ֛י הָרָעָ֥ב הַה֖וּא אַחֲרֵי־כֵ֑ן כִּֽי־כָבֵ֥ד ה֖וּא מְאֹֽד׃ How does it effect the reading ...
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3answers
200 views

Pronounciation in MO schools

I am curious about the Hebrew pronunciation taught in many Modern Orthodox schools. It doesn't seem to conform to real Israeli pronunciation, nor is it the "standard Yiddish" or Polish pronunciation ...
8
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1answer
80 views

What does the ל of לבעבור mean?

Shemos 20:17: ויֹּאמֶר משֶׁה אֶל הָעָם אַל תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ What does the 8th word in ...
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0answers
42 views

Why is the feminine form often used instead of the masculine in Biblical Hebrew grammar?

In Sefer Shmot, 4:1, it is written: ויען משה ויאמר והן לא יאמינו לי...‏ Moshe answered, and said, "They (f.) won't believe me"... Shouldn't it be הם (hem) and not הן (hen)? In fact, I'm ...
3
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1answer
52 views

Assist with understanding Shada"l regarding grammatic usage in Shemot 18:26

Exodus 18:26 (minor modif. to Sefaria English): וְשָׁפְט֥וּ אֶת־הָעָ֖ם בְּכָל־עֵ֑ת אֶת־הַדָּבָ֤ר הַקָּשֶׁה֙ יְבִיא֣וּן אֶל־מֹשֶׁ֔ה וְכָל־הַדָּבָ֥ר הַקָּטֹ֖ן יִשְׁפּוּט֥וּ הֵֽם׃ And they ...
4
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1answer
78 views

Why is Sefer Tehillim called Tehillim and not Tehillos?

Tehillim is plural of Tehilla (תהלה). Tehilla looks like a feminine noun, which is why there's a word called תהלות. So why is the sefer called Sefer Tehillim?
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2answers
63 views

Why is תורה sometimes written תורת?

Why is Torah sometimes written in the Torah with a "ת" at the end instead of an "ה"?
3
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2answers
117 views

About Shemot 35:3

Why Shemot 35:3 is being translated as "do not burn fire" if the piel form of the verb "burn" in the Written Torah always being translated as "eradicate". Excellent example is Dvarim 21:9. If I ...
3
votes
2answers
109 views

Why don't we use plural “TOVOT” in New Years greeting for ketivah ve-hatimah TOVOT?

Why don't we use plural "TOVOT" in New Years greeting for ketivah ve-hatimah (writing and sealing) tovot?
2
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0answers
54 views

Pronunciation of Vowel Under Last Consonant [closed]

A nagging grammar/pronunciation/BIBLE issue/question: This concerns a final vowel in a word such ruach/רוּחַ (spirit). WHY am I taught to say ruach not rucha? It seems to me with the "rule" that ...
9
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3answers
631 views

Does the vav hahipuch also mean “and”? Do all those extra “ands” belong in the Bible?

I know that in Biblical Hebrew, take a word like "Vaydaber." "Yedaber" = "He will speak"; the "v" flips the word from future tense to past, so it's "he spoke." Most translations understand the "v" ...
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0answers
44 views

Comparison of editions of Shas menukad

As far as I'm aware, there are at least three editions of the Talmud which are currently available with nikkud in the daf itself (the Steinsaltz/Koren, the Tuvia's Judaica, and the Oz Vehadar). In my ...
0
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1answer
44 views

Grammar question in Vayikra 11:21

I was recently reading something in Vayikra (in Chabad.org) and I found a parenthesis in 11:21. I've never seen something like this before. אַךְ אֶת זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל ...
3
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0answers
32 views

Sequences of Binyanim with Infinitive Construct

We find in Tanakh the grammatical construction: infinitive absolute + finite verb, where the two verbs are of the same root. For example, in Genesis 22:17, we have two occurences (text and ...
6
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1answer
147 views

Why does the Torah sometimes refer to Shabbat as a masculine noun and other times as a feminine noun?

There are times when the Torah refers to Shabat in feminine as in Shmot (Ex.) 31:13 "...But you shall observe my Shabbats, for SHE is a sign". Other times the masculine voice is used as in Shmot (Ex.) ...
5
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3answers
105 views

Why is “שבי” switched from masculine to feminine?

The beginning of Parshas Ki Seitze says: כִּי תֵצֵא לַמִּלְחָמָה עַל אֹיְבֶיךָ וּנְתָנוֹ יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּיָדֶךָ וְשָׁבִיתָ שִׁבְיוֹ וְרָאִיתָ בַּשִּׁבְיָה אֵשֶׁת יְפַת תֹּאַר ...
2
votes
2answers
72 views

Why is שלחה used as a masculine word?

In Shmuel 1 16:11, the word שלחה is used as a masculine word. The Mesora there lists 6 places where שלחה seems to be used as a masculine word. Another case is Bereishis 43:8 and another is Melachim 2 ...
26
votes
4answers
453 views

Female praying in masculine language

When women daven (pray), even by ourselves, it is convention to daven with male-gendered words ("modeh" vs "moda" as one of many examples). Why is this; are there sources that say we should be doing ...
6
votes
1answer
101 views

Why is the word “mitzvos” treated as grammatically masculine in certain prayers?

The prayer accompanying several mitzvos (such as putting on tallis and tefillin) expresses the desire that it be considered that the mitzvah is fulfilled as well as all the "613 mitzvos dependent on ...