Court of Jewish Law. Nowadays, they mostly adjudicate civil disputes, and are composed of 3 judges. Their decisions are halachically binding, and in most cases, legally as well.

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Mi La'Hashem Eilai - Was this an appropriate response?

This question weaves together a couple different sources. The first nekudah comes from 32:32 where we have the phrase: וְאִם-אַיִן--מְחֵנִי נָא, מִסִּפְרְךָ אֲשֶׁר כָּתָבְתָּ - If you will not ...
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2answers
108 views

Judicial System During the First Temple period

The Sanhedrin was a Jewish high court that was the supreme authority for Jewish law during the second Temple period. There seem to be a references to a central group of Sages in Exodus 24 and ...
2
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1answer
67 views

erroneous decisions by beit din for which korbanot must be brought by beit din and the people

In masechet horayot we learn that korbanot must be brought if the beit din makes an erroneous decision that is followed by the people. Do we know of such a mistake that was made by a beit din? If so, ...
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31 views

Zaken Mamrei vs. Par He'elem Davar

This past weekend I was reading through the Torah Temimah on Vayikra and a paradox occurred to me. The Zaken Mamre is specifically applied to one who is in a position of authority over a community. ...
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34 views

Flint, Michigan: Who would be HALACHICALLY Liable?

As a hypothetical scenario, we assume that the events of the Flint water crisis are taking place in a location where Beis Din and Jewish law are ascendant. Here's a quick summary of the facts: The ...
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1answer
19 views

Give money to defendants to pay their claims? Won't that increase theft?

Avos d'R' Nasan, 33:1: … Not only that, but our father Abraham did tz'daka (≈social justice) first and thereafter mishpat (≈justice), as is said [Gen. 18:19] "for I know him, for ...
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4answers
551 views

DNA and Jewish Law

Why isn't DNA seen as a valid source of Halachic decision making? Is it because it's too small for the naked eye? A margin of error problem? What? Normally, physical evidence is plenty of information ...
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2answers
90 views

R' Herschel Schachter on Female Dayanim

R' Saul Berman was a scholar in residence at Harvard Hillel this past Shabbat Zachor (28 Feb 2015). During se'udah shelishit, in response to a query which dealt with his talk after shacharit, he said ...
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3answers
72 views

Damages and two defendants — how would a beit din resolve?

A friend recently sat on a jury in a civil case where there were two defendants in the case of an injured party, each claiming the other was responsible, and the jury had to decide. I'm curious how a ...
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48 views

Beis Din - peshara and Za.B.L.A

In an actual Beis Din case these days, if someone is summoned to Beis Din, can the nitva (respondent) insist on using a different Beis Din than the plaintiff sent the hazmana (summons) from? Does ...
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1answer
69 views

Source that King/Beis Din would hang couples for being publicly intimate

The title says it all, for the most part, but I remember once hearing that, if it was deemed a common problem, the Beis Din was allowed to round up couples for being publicly intimate, and hang them. ...
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2answers
301 views

Can a Beis Din deny conversion if a person cannot physically perform a mitzvah?

As far as I know if a male is unable to have children due to body damage, he cannot become a ger. I have also heard of Beitei Din not allowing deaf people to convert since they cannot do certain ...
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1answer
189 views

How is the body of a androginus or tumtum hung?

If an androginus (person possessing both sex organs) or tumtum (person of unspecific gender) is punished by beis din for a capital case and then hung, how is the body displayed? Like a man (naked but ...
3
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1answer
42 views

Where is the story from (I believe in the Talmud ) about a Rebbe who was head of a beis din in regards to a widow and his sentencing to death?

This is a question is referenced the Gemara or Mishna I think. I believe in the mishna, or gemara there's a story about either Rebbe Yehuda or Rebbe Yosi(Or another head of the Beis Din). The story ...
9
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1answer
207 views

What should a conversion candidate expect at an Orthodox beit din?

This question about conversion before a Reform beit din made me wonder about other cases: what does the examination of a prospective ger by an Orthodox beit din look like today? Does the beit din ...
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3answers
193 views

Is it a mitzvah to save someone from execution by Beth Din?

I am wondering how the laws of pikuach nefesh might apply to a situation of mitath beth din. Would bystanders be obliged to save the condemned from his lawful execution? What about members of the beth ...
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1answer
24 views

Do the laws of witnesses apply to members of a bait din?

Do the laws restricting witnesses based on their relation to other parties in the case or based on their past sins apply to the judges of a bait din? Eg. Can a father and son serve together? May a ...
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0answers
52 views

What is the best way to keep updated with status of hechsheirim in Israel?

There are many halachic (and sociopolitical, agricultural, religious, economical, etc.) kashrut issues pertinent to Israel alone, leading to a great variety of challenges that kashrut authorities ...
4
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1answer
636 views

What should a conversion candidate expect in a Reform three-judge rabbinic court (Bet Din)?

What should a conversion candidate expect in a Reform three-judge rabbinic court (Bet Din)? I was told it was to determine the Jewish knowledge of the conversion candidate, but do you have any ...
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5answers
521 views

Etymology of the word sanhedrin

what is the root and source of the term "sanhedrin," the name of the Jewish high court and of a tractate in the Talmud? As far as I know, it is not from scripture.
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26 views

Must all parts of Hatarat Nedarim be said in a language which we understand, or only some parts?

Introduction Before Rosh Hashanah, it's customary to do the "annulment of vows" ceremony. There are good reasons for this ceremony. Though the ArtScroll Siddur commentary warns: Annulment is ...
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33 views

What do the different terms for “judges” indicate?

In a few places in the chumash, the word "elohim" is translated as "judges". Rashi does this on Bereishit 6:2 and many meforshim do this on the uses in Shemot (such as in 22:7 and 8) saying that the ...
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1answer
44 views

Commisioning a pruzbul in Monsey area

What are the procedures for commissioning a pruzbul, e.g. in the greater Monsey, NY area? Are there local batei din or shul rabbis who do this? Can it be done online?
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96 views

Why do we call the “judges” experts?

The hataras nedarim of Erev Rosh Hashanah starts with "Listen now my masters, expert judges" ("‎שמעו נא רבותי, דיינים מומחים‎").1 In practice, at least as far as I've seen, these judges are ...
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1answer
91 views

Jewish Law in Employer/employee relationships

I saw, in an article on "Halachic Considerations of Firing Employees" by Rav Dovid Grossman of The Bais HaVaad Halacha Center: Hagaon Rav Moshe Feinstein Zt"l writes a tremendous chiddush in ...
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2answers
60 views

Where in the torah is contempt of court condemned?

I looked at google for contempt of court and torah. Two sources that I see is this: https://www.ou.org/torah/mitzvot/taryag/mitzvah69/ It has a rule saying you shouldn't curse the elohim. Not only ...
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1answer
56 views

Devarim Rabbah 2:24 - conversion without beit din?

In Devarim Rabbah 2:24, there is a story where the Rabbis pay condolences to a Roman senator who committed suicide to save the Jews. The Rabbis hint that it was a shame that the senator died ...
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39 views

Where did the sanhedrin get its power from?

I guess we always assume that the power invested in the Sanhedrin comes from "Lo Sasur". However, this posuk is talking about either the Kohanim, or the shofet. Now, I know originally the cohen gadol ...
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1answer
62 views

May a convert serve on a beit din for gerut?

Say a convert is called to be one of the three witnesses for a person's conversion. May he do so? The reason why I am asking is that I know there are restrictions on gerim for serving on a beit din, ...
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142 views

Were there any Sadducees on the Sanhedrin?

Various Jewish sources indicate the presence of Sadducees among the priesthood, including the position of Kohen Gadol. However, are there any Jewish sources that discuss Sadducees on the Great ...
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1answer
73 views

Can later scholars make an issue of something that earlier scholars were not concerned about?

I know that this is a potentially broad subject but there seems to be a phenomenon where later generations of scholars (i.e. after the close of the Gemara; the Amoraim) come up with new halakhoth or ...
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1answer
138 views

How does “getting a heter” work?

I have heard of the concept of "getting a heter" to do something that is not ordinarily permitted, but I don't have a good idea of what it means. I am interested in explanations of what this process ...
3
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1answer
69 views

How did the Sanhedrin count votes

The Great Sanhedrin was too large (71 judges) to simply know how everyone voted. There must gave been a way to count votes, in a legal fashion. (Just counting people is prohibited.) So, by what ...
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1answer
70 views

Can an affidavit be used in Beit Din?

An affidavit, from what i understand, is basically a signed document given by a witness to be used as evidence in a trial, without the witness themselves needing to take a stand. Can an affidavit be ...
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1answer
91 views

Does Beis Din have the authority to quarantine?

In light of the recent discussions about the legality of quarantining potential Ebola patients, I was wondering if Halacha has the mechanism for such a thing. In an autonomous Jewish society, in ...
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2answers
165 views

Q on Men of the Great Assembly [duplicate]

When did the Men of the Great Assembly start and cease to function and why? What was their relationship to the Sanhedrin and to beit Hillel and Shammai?
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3answers
72 views

Saving an innocent person from being wrongly executed by a Beis Din

There is already a question on this site asking about saving a person from being executed (fairly) by a beis din, as well as a question regarding the criminal himself, if he may/must attempt to save ...
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3answers
166 views

Can a judge take an equal bribe from both sides?

It says in Choshen Mishpat Siman 9 that it is forbidden for a Dayan (judge) to take a shochad (bribe). What about if a particular Dayan is dealing with a case between Reuven and Shimon, both of whom ...
7
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1answer
241 views

Which beis din can declare items Hefker?

There is a rule that Hefker Beis Din Hefker, that a court can declare items ownerless. What are the requirements for a Beis Din to declare items ownerless? Are there any courts nowadays with such ...
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209 views

Napoléon's Sanhedrin

In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte convened a synod of French rabbinim (mainly Alsatiens and Bordelais) to ascertain halachic opinions on a set of questions. What is the halachic standing of this synod's ...
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1answer
139 views

How exactly were Sabbath laws enforced during ancient times?

I've heard Jews must obey the Sabbath and gentiles must not keep it (which is why I am typing a little bit here and there). So in ancient times, how was this actually enforced? Would Jews wear a ...
6
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1answer
100 views

What is/are the Halachic standard(s) of proof

This answer suggests a standard of "beyond a shadow of a doubt". That type of term is very popular from an English Law perspective, which has varying standards of "proof". Among them: Probable cause ...
13
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4answers
737 views

Can conversion be revoked?

In a recent case the Israeli Rabbinical Court has revoked someone's conversion to Judaism on the grounds that they were deceptive. This decision was "...Based on the fact that she completely ...
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1answer
110 views

Why is it often Claimed a Forced Get is Invalid?

I've read that part of the problem of agunot ( women who are refused a divorce ) is that if we force the man to give a get then the get is invalidated, and thus Beitai Din in Israel refrain from using ...
6
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1answer
147 views

Is there a penalty under the law for attempted adultery?

If a married man or woman propositions sexual misconduct to a person, or a man or woman propositions a person they know is married, is there a prescribed penalty according to the law, i.e. would a a ...
3
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1answer
108 views

May a person with a nature of getting angry be a dayan?

I sit in a beis din with a dayan who gets angry very easily. He can't seem to control his anger, causing great anguish to the litigants, and a big chilul Hashem at times. I have been asked to approach ...
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1answer
100 views

are you obligated to give testimony if you know you are pasul l'eidus?

I remember learning that there is a mitzvah to give testimony if you know of something which it requires. My question is if you know about yourself, with certainty, that you are pasul l'eidus in ...
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0answers
44 views

Looking for a particular idea from Reb Yonason Eibshitz

I recall reading a quote from Reb Yonason Eibshitz concerning a judge on a beis din of 23 faced with a strange situation. The defendant seems to the judge to be guilty of murder, but this judge is the ...
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2answers
212 views

When Eidim Zomemim are found guilty who do they pay if it was a monetary case?

When Eidim Zomemim are found guilty who do they pay if it was a monetary case? I can think of reasons to say it's the initial accused, the court, or the person who was said to have been owed the ...
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2answers
450 views

Is it a mitzva to escape the death penalty?

If someone is being led to his death by bes din (a Jewish court), is he supposed to try to escape, since, in general, saving one's own life is paramount? More: normally, we say that if someone is out ...