Court of Jewish Law. Nowadays, they mostly adjudicate civil disputes, and are composed of 3 judges. Their decisions are halachically binding, and in most cases, legally as well.

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38 views

What should a conversion candidate expect at an Orthodox beit din?

This question about conversion before a Reform beit din made me wonder about other cases: what does the examination of a prospective ger by an Orthodox beit din look like today? Does the beit din ...
2
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1answer
29 views

How did the Sanhedrin count votes

The Great Sanhedrin was too large (71 judges) to simply know how everyone voted. There must gave been a way to count votes, in a legal fashion. (Just counting people is prohibited.) So, by what ...
6
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1answer
59 views

Can an affidavit be used in Beit Din?

An affidavit, from what i understand, is basically a signed document given by a witness to be used as evidence in a trial, without the witness themselves needing to take a stand. Can an affidavit be ...
3
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1answer
78 views

What should a conversion candidate expect in a Reform three-judge rabbinic court (Bet Din)?

What should a conversion candidate expect in a Reform three-judge rabbinic court (Bet Din)? I was told it was to determine the Jewish knowledge of the conversion candidate, but do you have any ...
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2answers
133 views

Q on Men of the Great Assembly [duplicate]

When did the Men of the Great Assembly start and cease to function and why? What was their relationship to the Sanhedrin and to beit Hillel and Shammai?
5
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4answers
441 views

Etymology of the word sanhedrin

what is the root and source of the term "sanhedrin," the name of the Jewish high court and of a tractate in the Talmud? As far as I know, it is not from scripture.
6
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1answer
52 views

Why do we call the “judges” experts?

The hataras nedarim of Erev Rosh Hashanah starts with "Listen now my masters, expert judges" ("שמעו נא רבותי, דיינים מומחים"). In practice, these judges are usually ordinary people. So why do we make ...
4
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1answer
105 views

Can a Beis Din deny conversion if a person cannot physically perform a mitzvah?

As far as I know if a male is unable to have children due to body damage, he cannot become a ger. I have also heard of Beitei Din not allowing deaf people to convert since they cannot do certain ...
5
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1answer
77 views

What is/are the Halachic standard(s) of proof

This answer suggests a standard of "beyond a shadow of a doubt". That type of term is very popular from an English Law perspective, which has varying standards of "proof". Among them: Probable cause ...
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1answer
63 views

Why is it often Claimed a Forced Get is Invalid?

I've read that part of the problem of agunot ( women who are refused a divorce ) is that if we force the man to give a get then the get is invalidated, and thus Beitai Din in Israel refrain from using ...
4
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3answers
59 views

Saving an innocent person from being wrongly executed by a Beis Din

There is already a question on this site asking about saving a person from being executed (fairly) by a beis din, as well as a question regarding the criminal himself, if he may/must attempt to save ...
3
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1answer
95 views

May a person with a nature of getting angry be a dayan?

I sit in a beis din with a dayan who gets angry very easily. He can't seem to control his anger, causing great anguish to the litigants, and a big chilul Hashem at times. I have been asked to approach ...
8
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1answer
86 views

are you obligated to give testimony if you know you are pasul l'eidus?

I remember learning that there is a mitzvah to give testimony if you know of something which it requires. My question is if you know about yourself, with certainty, that you are pasul l'eidus in ...
6
votes
1answer
81 views

Is there a penalty under the law for attempted adultery?

If a married man or woman propositions sexual misconduct to a person, or a man or woman propositions a person they know is married, is there a prescribed penalty according to the law, i.e. would a a ...
10
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4answers
469 views

Can conversion be revoked?

In a recent case the Israeli Rabbinical Court has revoked someone's conversion to Judaism on the grounds that they were deceptive. This decision was "...Based on the fact that she completely ...
5
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0answers
34 views

Looking for a particular idea from Reb Yonason Eibshitz

I recall reading a quote from Reb Yonason Eibshitz concerning a judge on a beis din of 23 faced with a strange situation. The defendant seems to the judge to be guilty of murder, but this judge is the ...
4
votes
2answers
200 views

When Eidim Zomemim are found guilty who do they pay if it was a monetary case?

When Eidim Zomemim are found guilty who do they pay if it was a monetary case? I can think of reasons to say it's the initial accused, the court, or the person who was said to have been owed the ...
5
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0answers
50 views

Is one allowed to kill false witnesses to his own capital crime?

Reuven and Shimon conspire to execute Levi in Beis Din (court) for killing Yehuda by their testimony. Levi asks around and there are no witnesses who will come forward, and a few people told him that ...
6
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1answer
374 views

What are the chief sources for requiring Jews to litigate in a beis din rather than in a civil court?

If I were to try to disuade a Jew from suing another Jew in court, without first going to a beis din, what Biblical and rabbinic sources should I cite as proof?
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0answers
35 views

What is the best way to keep updated with status of hechsheirim in Israel?

There are many halachic (and sociopolitical, agricultural, religious, economical, etc.) kashrut issues pertinent to Israel alone, leading to a great variety of challenges that kashrut authorities ...
8
votes
1answer
155 views

Napoléon's Sanhedrin

In 1806, Napoléon Bonaparte convened a synod of French rabbinim (mainly Alsatiens and Bordelais) to ascertain halachic opinions on a set of questions. What is the halachic standing of this synod's ...
8
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1answer
81 views

Does Beis Din have the authority to quarantine?

In light of the recent discussions about the legality of quarantining potential Ebola patients, I was wondering if Halacha has the mechanism for such a thing. In an autonomous Jewish society, in ...
9
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2answers
107 views

Threatening to sue with no intention to do so

Let's say that a person is rightfully owed a sum of money, and the debtor refuses to pay them. Can they threaten to take the person to Beis Din or a secular court, even if they have no intention of ...
2
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1answer
45 views

Must a beit din be exactly 3 people?

Must a small court be exactly 3 people, or could it be larger, like 4 or 5?
5
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1answer
271 views

What is Otzar Beis Din?

During shmittah, some stores sell otzar beis din produce which is ok to eat. What is otzar beis din and why does it make the produce permissible to eat?
4
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1answer
89 views

Clarification on “The Bloody Court”

If a beit din executes more than 1 person in 70 years, it is considered a bloody court. Does this axiom refer to only the 4 kinds of executions involving the 2 witnesses or does it include the ...
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2answers
126 views

Ben Noah and his obligations regarding vows

A hypothetical case (based on a somewhat similar real one): Ben Noah in the process of giyur. Stood before the Beis Din and was asked question 'Will you follow the mitzvot as fully as a goy can up ...
2
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1answer
274 views

Beis Din observing a female convert's immersion in the Mikvah

The practice today is that the Beis Din overseeing the conversion of a woman will observe her head going below water for the required Tevilah. Given the potential modesty issue - I know that they put ...
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0answers
42 views

Source for split between דיני ממונות and דיני נפשות

There's a fairly commonly quoted idea in נזיקין masechtos, that a difference exists between דיני ממונות (monetary cases) and דיני נפשות (capital cases); that by דיני ממונות the חייב [whoever is חייב] ...
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0answers
38 views

Beis Din in Monsey? [closed]

What are some reliable batei dinim in Monsey? How much do they charge for services and how does someone get in touch with them?
3
votes
1answer
90 views

How can you get Ka'asher Zamam if you became a Chalal

There is a rule that Ka'asher Zamam vilo Ka'asher Asa: the second set of witnesses have to appear in court "before the punishment" in order that the first witnesses get the punishment Ka'asher Zamam. ...
10
votes
1answer
99 views

How do you “take someone to beis din”?

Reuvain and Shimon are having a monetary dispute. Reuvain wants to take Shimon to beis din to settle the dispute, how does this work in practical terms? Does Reuvain have to tell Shimon first? Can he ...
2
votes
1answer
97 views

What is the role of a shofet (as in the book of Shoftim)?

In the book of Shoftim (Judges) we are introduced to a the role of a shofet ("judge"). At first glance, it's a very vague role. Hashem uses judges to prevent the Jews from sinning. But not much else ...
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6answers
1k views

Does the Torah ever mention jail as a punishment for a crime?

I have learned that punishments in the Torah often (always?) have a rehabilitative aspect to them as well as providing justice to the victim, e.g. someone who steals and can't pay back the value of ...
0
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1answer
161 views

How is the body of a androginus or tumtum hung?

If an androginus (person possessing both sex organs) or tumtum (person of unspecific gender) is punished by beis din for a capital case and then hung, how is the body displayed? Like a man (naked but ...
7
votes
1answer
164 views

Why is the hard limit for the size of a beis din 71 members?

When a beis din is undecided (e.g. when adjudicating monetary cases or Dinei Nefashos), judges can be added until the beis din reaches a maximum size of 71. Why is a beis din's maximum size 71? Why ...
2
votes
0answers
92 views

How could they stone with esrogim without a court case?

The mishnah in Sukkah (48b) tells of a Tzadukki who, on Sukkot, performed a service in the temple incorrectly and all the people in the temple stoned him to death with their esrogim. I would like to ...
5
votes
1answer
71 views

How does Beis Din handle loans with interest?

If a borrower and a lender go to Beis Din with a loan document that stipulates interest, but the borrower claims he can at least collect the principle, how does Beis Din look at that? Do they ...
3
votes
1answer
139 views

Pregnant and not recommended to get a get

I recently heard of a case where a couple were planning on getting divorced: the wife was pregnant and they were given a psak (via the Beth Din) that the husband can not give her a get until the baby ...
2
votes
2answers
294 views

What is the punishment for receiving a seruv from a Bais Din?

What is the punishment for receiving a seruv from a Bais Din for litigating B'Arkoas (in non-Jewish courts) without a heter?
1
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1answer
101 views

Does one require a non-Jew to use beit din

Often, Jewish organizations have as a contract clause that employees agree to take issues to beit din and not (or at least, before) secular courts. But if the employee is not Jewish, is that ...
6
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0answers
61 views

Historical Calendar Records

Are there any records of the Beis Din's decisions regarding the Hebrew Calendar (e.g. to add months, how long the month would be), before Hillel Hakatan established the fixed calendar?
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votes
1answer
120 views

How exactly were Sabbath laws enforced during ancient times?

I've heard Jews must obey the Sabbath and gentiles must not keep it (which is why I am typing a little bit here and there). So in ancient times, how was this actually enforced? Would Jews wear a ...
11
votes
4answers
359 views

Why is the torah so misleading without the oral law

In parsha ki tetze (Devarim 22) it says if a man takes a wife, hates her, accuses her of not being a virgin, etc. Then the elders spread out the bedsheet to see if there is blood of virginity. If not, ...
2
votes
4answers
78 views

why are kohanim mentioned in connection with judgement

In Devarim 17:8-9 we read: If there arise a matter hidden from thee in judgment, between blood and blood, between verdict and verdict, and between plague and plague, even matters of controversy ...
4
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1answer
198 views

Does Judaism have a default rule about child custody in the case of divorce?

In many marriages in modern times, a couple will sign a prenuptial agreement that outlines what should happen if they (chas v'shalom) get divorced. Among the things commonly agreed upon in a ...
2
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2answers
130 views

Is it a mitzvah to save someone from execution by Beth Din?

I am wondering how the laws of pikuach nefesh might apply to a situation of mitath beth din. Would bystanders be obliged to save the condemned from his lawful execution? What about members of the beth ...
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0answers
92 views

Turn yourself in for a capital offense?

This question assumes that one should accept his punishment after being convicted of a capital offense. Should one turn himself in to (Jewish) authorities after committing an offense for which he ...
6
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1answer
414 views

What forms of evidence do batei din accept to establish that someone is Jewish?

I am interested in the question, what forms of evidence do contemporary Orthodox batei din accept to establish that someone is Jewish? In particular, if you, your parents and grand-parents are ...
5
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3answers
156 views

Can a judge take an equal bribe from both sides?

It says in Choshen Mishpat Siman 9 that it is forbidden for a Dayan (judge) to take a shochad (bribe). What about if a particular Dayan is dealing with a case between Reuven and Shimon, both of whom ...