I have heard that some (e.g. Chabad?) have the practice not to say kaddish for one's deceased sister. Can anybody confirm this? What might be the reason for this? I had thought there is an obligation to say kaddish for a sister for 30 days.
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I'm not sure what communities have a custom not to say Kaddish for close relatives, but it appears that at least some don't.
Two reasons why the obligation of Kaddish is primarily for the parents:
Perhaps somebody is confusing this with the list of relatives for whom a kohein must become tamei for (Lev 21:2-3), which includes an unmarried sister (but not a married one). My Jewish Learning says that the rabbis took the kohein's list in torah -- father, mother, son, daughter, brother (including half-brother on father's side), unmarried sister -- as the basis for whom everyone mourns, and expanded it to include spouse, married sister, and other half-siblings. They cite Mo'ed Katan 20b. I just looked up that g'mara to confirm and also found there a discussion of second-degree close relatives (e.g. father-in-law); it appears there that the rabbis permit but do not require mourning in those cases, but I haven't chased it farther.