What is the minimal required text to say for the bedtime shema? Is it sufficient to say only Hamapil and the first paragraph of shema?
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Deoraita, the obligation is to say "Shma Yisroel.." through the first paragraph (until "Vehayah im shamoa"). It can be said in any language, and "Shma" through "echad" requires extra kavanah. (somewhere within the first 15 pages of Missechet Bruchot)
I'm not sure if Hamapil is required Derabanan, or just a strong suggestion.
Technically all one needs to say is shema/veahavta and hamapil (That's what one says on the first night of pesach).
The rest of krias shema is for protection against mazikin.