Why is the foreskin removed? God gave it men, did God also tell them to have it removed?
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God commanded Avraham to circumcise his sons and future male descendants. The obligation was derived from that command to apply to all fathers of male children. The relevant sources are laid out by Ramba"m here.
There are many mitzvos completion of which necessitates altering something's physical state. Here are some more examples: [binding and waving] the 4 designated plants on Sukos, gifting choice fleece to priests, preparing olive oil for priestly annointment
Firstly, we circumcise because it the sign specifically commanded in the Torah, by God to the Abraham and his descendants for entering the eternal covenant with God (Bereshit, 17). In return, God made Abraham the father of a multitude of nations. Made him exceedingly fruitful, into nations, and kings. God gave his decedents the entire land of Canaan for an everlasting posession, and is their God.
But why specifically the prepuce?
Circumcision is a chok (a law with an unclear reasons), however in the guide of the perplexed Rambam gives his own rationale for cutting off the prepuce specifically:
While the Rambam's second reason makes the connection that the circumcision is a covenant for believers in God's unity, it doesn't really answer why the prepuce is specifically cut off as sign of God's unity - the tip of your nose, or an ear-lobe could have been the sign.
I'd offer my own answer (so take it with a grain of salt), building upon the Rambam's second reason and in conjunction with his reason for other chukim (laws with unclear reasons), for why the circumcision is a sign of God's unity. The Rambam explains the reasons for some other chukim by showing that that they were idolatrous. He references an ancient book called "The Nabataean Agriculture" to show how many of our chukim are restrictions of idolatrous practices of the pagan society Abraham was from.
I would link circumcision to this, since the Phallus was a common idol whose worship dates back to prehistoric times and is still today a sign of fertility in some cultures. By injuring our phallus, we are actively denying the worthiness of the penis to be worshiped.
While other nations worship the phalluses, Jews cut their own phalluses as a sign of God's unity. Only Hashem is God, not stone or even flesh which can be cut in two.
The Midrash records a discussion of this issue (from vbm-torah.org). R' Akiva explains that God created the world and man so that man can improve it:
The idea mentioned in the moreh nevuchim can also be understood symbolically. While circumcision not actually limit pleasure, it symbolizes subjugating everything, including basic desires, to God's will. This symbolism of rising above the physical for a higher cause infuriated many anti-semites. For example, Hitler said "The Jews have inflicted two wounds on the world: Circumcision for the body and conscience for the soul". Judaism brought to the world Ethical Monotheism which called for higher ideals than just gaining power, such as helping the weak and the poor. Similarly, Judaism calls for circumcision as a symbol of rising above base desires.
I have understood the bris milah to be illuminated in Devarim 30:6
We might consider this factors deeply with teshuvah, in that the sin (the part that impedes reciprocity with the light of hashem) is "cut off" so the nation may live.