I know what "Talmud" means and that it derives from the root Lamed Mem Dalet. But I cannot figure out how the word derives. Is it Aramaic (i.e. not Hebrew) and/or are there any other words that follow the t..w. scheme?
(. is a root letter.)
It is Hebrew. דתנן ר' יהודה אומר הוי זהיר בתלמוד ששגגת תלמוד עולה זדון. Note that this is a Mishna, and ש to mean 'that/for', instead of ד. You can look up the word in Jastrow.
Other words on the same pattern: targum; tafnuk (delicacy).