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In the Friday night davening, I have noticed that after the chazan says the bracha "קונה שמים וארץ", the congregation always goes immediately on to saying "מגן אבות" without responding אמן to the bracha. This seems to be the case in shuls of all nusachim (as far as I can remember).

What is the reason for this? The only explanation that I can think of is that this is a "long bracha" (matbe'a arokh) which ends with "מקדש השבת". Is this the case? If not, why is Amen not said after the first bracha?

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Note some communities remain silent during the entire blessing and don't read along parts of it. – Double AA Aug 11 '14 at 18:16

It is a long beracha, called the Birchat Me'ein Sheva. It starts with Baruch and ends with Baruch.

The Mechaber Orach Chaim 268:8 writes that one praying alone should not say the blessing. The Ramah adds that one who wants to may do so, by skipping the beginning and conclusion of the blessing.

The Be'er Heitev explains that this means the one praying alone starts Magen Avraham and concludes Zecher L'maaseh Bereishit.

So, as you thought, it is one long blessing that ends in Mekadesh Hashabat.

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It seems to be a long bracha. In fact, my siddur calls it ברכה אחת מעין שבע -- one bracha that is seven.

After all, why not ask about why we don't say amen before kel adon in Shacharit? ;)

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