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When is the Musaf said? I know it is part of the Shacharit service. I mean when as in what holidays, fast days, etc... Would you say it on Tisha B'av for example. If not, why?

At the end of the Torah reading of Pinchas, we read about the additional sacrifices that were offered in the Temple on special days. These additional sacrifices are called musaf (in the singular) or musafin (in the plural), meaning "additions," and they were offered on Shabbat, Rosh Chodesh, Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Sukkot, as well as on the intermediate days (Chol Hamoed) of Passover and Sukkot.

Are the holidays listed the only times you would do musaf?

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The red-letter days listed in your question are, indeed, the only times we say it, and for the reason you quote: because those are the days the musaf sacrificial offerings were offered to God in the Temple back in the good old days. See Numbers chapters 2829.

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Note Musaf is not part of Shacharit. It is it's own service, though it is usually also said in the morning. –  Double AA Aug 6 at 4:33
    
There are other communal additional offerings though which do not merit a Musaf prayer. (Your condition is necessary but insufficient.) –  Double AA Aug 6 at 4:34
    
Thank you, both msh210 and @Double AA ! Your responses helped clarify this for me. –  Leah Aug 6 at 4:40
    
@DoubleAA, I can't think of any offerings that don't merit a musaf prayer but which meet the description I wrote ("the musaf sacrificial offerings"). What are they? –  msh210 Aug 6 at 23:25
    
@msh210 I see a 3 such sheep [and 1 such goat] mentioned in Leviticus 23. (Your description is somewhat vague. If it means "the sacrificial offering which have a corresponding Tefillat Musaf" then it is trivially true. If you mean "communal offerings of fixed time aside from the Tamid" (or something like that) then my counterexamples hold, I believe.) [Goat is in brackets because there are some nuschaot which do have a prayer for it, but this is not well accepted IME.] –  Double AA Aug 6 at 23:47

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