What it the ideal place to put a chanukiah for lighting? Is it better to put it in the window, outside or inside? Does it depend on where you live?
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From what I understand, it does depend on where you live.
An integral part of lighting Chanuka candles is "advertising the miracle" (pirsumei nisa). For many years this was accomplished by lighting outdoors in a public place where many people gathered. Due to religious persecution at certain points in history, this practice was almost entirely stopped.
Most people moved the lighting into the more private setting of the home, still publicizing it to the world by displaying the chanukiya in the window for all to see.
Others held that the essential understanding of pirsumei nisa changed with the change of venue from outdoors to indoors and as a result even the window display is not necessary as long as the lighting is done in view of one's own family members. This logic plays an important role when it comes to people whose windows are more than 20 cubits (~9.6m) above the street, thus rendering them out of viewing range of passers by. People in such situations are required to light in a place where residents of their home (or building) will be able to see.
Over the years, especially in certain places in Israel, the custom has arisen once again to light publicly outdoors.