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קצור שלחן ערוך‎ 21:1 describes what one should do who missed מעריב by accident:

לאחר תפילת שחרית יאמר תחנון ואשרי ויתפלל תפלת שמונה עשרה לשם ערבית ואחר כך יאמר למנצח ובא לציון וכו׳

After the prayer of שחרית, he should say תחנון and "אשרי" and then say שמונה עשרה for מעריב. After that, he should say "למנצח",‎ "ובא לציון", etc.

It seems likely that the intent that he listens to חזרת הש״ץ, says תחנון and "אשרי" with the congregation, and only then says his own שמונה עשרה, as opposed to saying תחנון and "אשרי" on his own before and/or during חזרת הש״ץ.

Just a bit earlier, in 20:11,‎ קצור שלחן ערוך says this:

חיוב על האדם לומר קדושה עם הציבור וגם אמן שלאחר האל הקדוש ושלאחר שומע תפילה הוא גם כן חיוב כמו קדושה וכן הקדישים שאומר השליח ציבור חיוב הוא לענות עליהם וכן במודים הוא חייב לשחות עם הציבור ולכן אם נתאחר לבוא לבית הכנסת באופן שאינו יכול להתפלל עם הציבור והוא מוכרח להתפלל ביחידות אם אין השעה עוברת צריך להשגיח שלא יתפלל שמונה עשרה בשעה שיפסיד מלענות אחד מדברים אלו אלא ימתין עד שיענה ואחר כך יתפלל שמונה עשרה

…Any קדיש said by the ש״ץ (leader) — there's an obligation to answer it.… Therefore, if he came late to the synagogue to the extent that he cannot pray with the congregation and must pray alone, if the time [for prayers] isn't about to pass, he must take care not to say שמונה עשרה at a time that he'll lose out on answering one of those things: rather, he should wait until he answers [them] and only then say שמונה עשרה.‎

Now, if someone starts saying "אשרי" and a weekday שמונה עשרה when the congregation starts saying "אשרי", he's not going to finish his שמונה עשרה before the ש״ץ says קדיש. So I don't understand 21:1:

  1. Does he intend that 20:11 doesn't apply here and the person should say שמונה עשרה, missing קדיש? If so, why?
  2. Or does he intend that the person say "אשרי" with everyone else and then wait, saying nothing, while the congregation says "למנצח" and "ובא לציון"? If so, why not say it with them (since he's waiting anyway)?
  3. Or what?
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A third possibility: 21:1 is talking about when praying alone, but when praying with the Tzibur 20:11 applies and one would have to wait till after the last Qadish. On the other hand, going with the first possibility, it could be that 20:11 doesn't apply to the Qadishim after u-Va le-Tziyon. (25:4 says one may not leave the Beit Keneset till after the Qedushah of u-Va le-Tziyon, suggesting one can miss the Qadishim afterwards. See also 25:5.) –  Tamir Evan Jul 24 at 17:37
    
If he did end up saying "למנצח" and "ובא לציון", he should then repeat "אשרי", since one should recite the amida amidst "דברי תנחומין של תורה" (i.e. "אשרי" when "סמיכת גאולה לתפילה" is not an option, see Shulchan Aruch 93:2). –  Fred Jul 24 at 18:54
    
@TamirEvan, thanks, I'll edit accordingly. –  msh210 Jul 24 at 19:06
    
@Fred Even though Shulchan Arukh Orach Chayim 108:2 is understood to follow that idea by saying, that when praying Tashlumin for Minchah in Arvit one is to say Ashrei before praying the Tashlumin, Qitzur Shulchan Arukh 21:1 explicitly says that one does not say Ashrei before praying the Tashlumin for Minchah. –  Tamir Evan Sep 14 at 17:30

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