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Is becoming drunk a sin? If yes, is it a Torah prohibition or a rabbinical one? Please give a lot of details. And also sources.

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Welcome to Mi Yodeya! As your question does not currently pertain to the four cups of wine, I am removing that tag. If you would like to edit your question such that it is relevant, you could add it back. – Y ez Jul 18 '14 at 18:13
The Orchos Tzadikim (Sha'ar haSimcha) has an interesting discussion on the vices and virtues of drinking. – Fred Jul 18 '14 at 21:18
Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/36298 – msh210 Jul 20 '14 at 5:13
up vote 4 down vote accepted

Rambam Hilchos De'os 5:3

וכל המשתכר, הרי זה חוטא ומגונה ומפסיד חכמתו; ואם משתכר בפני עמי הארץ, הרי זה חילל את השם.

Anyone who gets drunk, he is a sinner and is disgusting and loses his wisdom. And if he does so before commoners, he profanes G-d.

According to the Rambam, the mitzvah of simcha on Yom Tov does not encourage or even permit drinking (Hilchos Yom Tov 6:20):

כשאדם אוכל ושותה ושמח ברגל, לא יימשך ביין ובשחוק ובקלות ראש ויאמר שכל שיוסיף בזה ירבה במצוה, שהשכרות והשחוק הרבה וקלות הראש, אינה שמחה אלא הוללות וסכלות. ולא נצטווינו על ההוללות והסכלות, אלא על השמחה שיש בה עבודת יוצר הכול, שנאמר "תחת, אשר לא עבדת את ה' אלוהיך, בשמחה, ובטוב לבב" (דברים כח,מז), הא למדת שהעבודה בשמחה. ואי אפשר לעבוד את ה'--לא מתוך שחוק, ולא מתוך קלות ראש, ולא מתוך שכרות.

(Summary) When one eats and drinks and is festive on the Festivals, do not be exceeding in [consumption of] wine ... as drunkenness is not happiness, rather it is vanity and foolishness. The mitzvah on Yom Tov is happiness which has service of the Creator in it... And it is impossible to serve Hashem out of drunkenness.

Drinking on Purim is a specific case in which the direct mitzvah is to get drunk (Rambam Hilchos Megillah 2:15):

ושותה יין, עד שישתכר ויירדם בשכרות.

And drink wine until you get drunk and drift off from your drunkenness

However, even there some opinions understand the Rambam to not be literal, and to just mean that one should drink more than he is accustomed to, get tired from the drinking, and go to sleep (Darkei Moshe O.C. 695:1).

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So does this exclude when it is a commandment? ex. Purim and Peseach – user6754 Jul 18 '14 at 17:56
@RaMMaS see edit – Y ez Jul 18 '14 at 18:11
The idea behind the four cups is not to get drunk. According to the Y'rushalmi (P'sachim 10:6), the Sages instituted the rule against drinking between the third and fourth cups to forestall drunkenness: למה? בשביל שלא ישתכר. כבר משוכר הוא! מה בין יין שבתוך המזון מה בין יין של אחר המזון? יין של אחר המזון משכר שבתוך המזון אינו משכר – Fred Jul 18 '14 at 20:50
@Fred how is that related to my answer? (Maybe you meant to ping the OP, although I don't think he was saying the mitzvah of Pesach is to get drunk, but rather saying there is a mitzvah to drink which may allow getting drunk) – Y ez Jul 18 '14 at 20:53
Whoops. Yes, I meant to ping @RaMMaS . Thanks for catching that, YEZ. All I meant in my comment is that chazal included rules in the arba kosos to minimize drunkenness. – Fred Jul 18 '14 at 21:01

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