The word Trope seems to me to be a Yiddish word. What is the source of this word? How do you say this word in Hebrew? Taamei Hanegina?
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From Webster Dictionary
The most common Hebrew term I have heard for this is טעמי המקרא.
Interesting to note that both terms seem to focus on different aspects of what "trope" is or does.
The Latin root has a definition meaning "style", and this is accurate as the notes dictate the style or manner that the words are sung and, more importantly, pronounced (the position of the note indicates accented syllable). It also indicates the "manner" of defining the sentence as the notes are for grammar.
In Hebrew, the term "טעמי המקרא" means "taste" or "reason" of the "reading" or "words". I like the definition "taste", here (although both definitions work), as when you read the Torah with the Trope, you get a "taste" of what Hashem is telling us.