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I think I read in Shulach Aruch (don't recall exact place) that someone who does not fast with the rest of the tzibbur is considered an "outsider" and cannot participate in any of the fast-specific activities such as being Shalicah tzibbur, Ba'al Kri'ah (either Torah or Haftarah at mincha) and receiving an aliyah.

Is there an exception if he is the only one in the shul qualified to do that job (e.g. - only one who can daven at amud, read Torah or only Cohen or Levi in the shul?)

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You do realize that your question title and actual question are different, right? ....your title is general, but your actual question is about exceptions (only Cohen etc.) – Shokhet Jul 14 '14 at 14:31
@Shokhet - I wasn't sure b/c I made an assumption about the halacha, in general. I edited to narrow down the focus. – DanF Jul 14 '14 at 14:40
The Kohein/Levi case is probably different, because you aren't required to have those -- if none are present you give the aliyot to Yisraelim. But you can't have a service or read torah without somebody competent to do those jobs. – Monica Cellio Jul 14 '14 at 15:07
@MonicaCellio - I realized that when I posted the question. I was about to post, what if no one is fasting, but I think the answer, then, is that there is no Torah reading to begin with, correct? In current question, would we prefer a non-fasting Cohen over a fasting Yisra'el? I don't know. – DanF Jul 14 '14 at 16:02
up vote 5 down vote accepted

In Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 566:5, the Mechaber writes that one who is not fasting is not allowed to be a Shalicah Tzibbur. The Mishnah Berurah (Seif Katan 18) writes that if one were to find himself davening for the amud, he should say עננו in Shma Koleinu and say "ביום צום התענית הזה". If there is no one else to daven for the amud, it is better that one is not fasting should be Shaliach Tzibbur that to miss out on Kaddish, Kedusha, and Barchu.

In 566:6, the Mechaber writes that one who is not fasting, even if he is the only Kohen in the shul, should not get called up for an aliyah. The Mishnah Berurah (Seif Katan 19) quotes the Magen Avraham who differentiates between Shacharis and Mincha. By Shacharis, the Kohen can receive the aliyah לכתחילה, whereas by Mincha, he should not get the aliyah. Some Achronim argue, but all agree that if called up (בדיעבד) the Kohen can receive the aliyah.
The Mishnah Berurah (Seif Katan 21) writes that, לכתחילה, the Kohen should leave the room at that time so that people won't say when he doesn't get called up that he is not a proper Kohen. If there is another Kohen, he doesn't have to leave, but he should tell the Gabbai not to call him up.
If the Kohen did get called up by Mincha, there is a machlokes amongst the Poskim if he should go up (because of כבוד הציבור) or not (because it may be a ברכה לבטלה). Therefore, the Kohen should ake sure not to be in the shul at that time.
If he is a תלמיד חכם and, for whatever reason, he is not fasting, he can rely on those that are lenient to avoid a חילול השם.

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Thanks for the research and thorough and well explained summary. I hope that I can correctly infer that the Bedieved rules applying to Shaliach Tzibbur would apply to a Ba'al Kri'ah as well? – DanF Jul 15 '14 at 17:02
You're welcome. Many times the phrase "Shaliach Tzibbur" can refer to any person who is doing something for the Tzibbur, which would include a Ba'al Kri'ah. However, based on the phraseology of the Mishnah Berirah, I'm still not sure if it includes a Ba'al Kri'ah as well. – MNT Jul 15 '14 at 17:07
Now that I think over this, if I recall correctly, someone who is not fasting, technically, is "exempt" from the Torah reading, i.e. - he is not "part of the tzibbur". I think I saw this rule regarding Ta'anit Behab. The question becomes if the B'al Kri'ah falls into the same category of other mitzvot of "motzi"-ing others in the mitzvah. I.e. - generally, one who is not obligated cannot motzi others. Have to research this. – DanF Jul 15 '14 at 17:17
Take a look at the Mishnah Berurahs that I quoted. He mentions Behab and distinctions between Behab and other Tannisim – MNT Jul 15 '14 at 17:21
Tough to make a definitive conclusion re: Ba'al Kri'ah. They refer to different opinions & sources. So, my best shot based on a small section mentioned in SK 21 that states that during Mincha, someone who is not fasting should not be called for an aliyah b/c Rabbanan did not establish Torah reading other than for those that fast. Based on this and the fact that the B'al Kri'ah is like a Shat"z in that he is leading part of the service, it seems to me that he cannot read the Torah, perhaps even if he is the only qualified one. Any contradictory opinions on this from anyone? – DanF Jul 15 '14 at 17:49

A non-faster could probably daven Psukei D'Zimrah, or finish off with Ashrei, U'Va LeTzion, but I hardly think he could do Chazarat HaShas if he has to say Annenu and he himself is not fasting. Certainly nothing to prevent him from doing Haghba and/or Glila, etc...

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You may have answered my question prior to its edit. The question narrows the focus to specifically if he is the only qualified person to do the job. – DanF Jul 14 '14 at 15:59

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