Vayikra 19:11 - "Do not steal and do not deceive or lie one person to his neighbor". The commentary Ohr Hchayim explains that the mitzvot in this verse is written in plural, unlike those that are written in the verses either before or after it. This is to point out that even if your neighbor steals or deceives, you should not imitate him.
Granted, Captcha is a computer program, but humans designed it, and the "Googlers" (my name for those in charge of Google) designed the program and are doing something with the data, so they are human. So, in keeping with the explanation in this verse, even if the Googlers deceived or lied via Captcha, it does not give you permission to do likewise.
Having said this, inherent in your question is another - "Am I allowed to lie to protect myself?"
That's a separate, general question which you didn't directly ask, here. However, in your comment, you indicated that Google's HELP screen does tell you what they do with your information, so you are aware of what is happening (I assume). Whether their help screen is, itself, "deceptive" can be debated. Nonetheless, since you do know what is happening, by answering CAPTCHA, you are well aware of the risks involved.
Lastly, as a general web user, I think that you are also aware that nothing is completely "safe" anyway. Let's say you faked out CAPTCHA. How do you know that Google isn't figuring out who you are by placing multiple cookies on your computer?
BTW - In order to post my answer, I have to answer CAPTCHA, too. So, I know that I'm taking this risk, and I couldn't lie to the computer no matter how hard I tried. CAPTCAH is smarter than me, here!