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If a non-Jew is interested in Judaism, how should they approach commands in the Torah like Exodus 21:17, Exodus 31:14, Leviticus 20:13? Should these passages be seen not just as command not to do the prohibited things but also a command to carry out the punishment of death? After all, these commands are not "do not do this" but "if a person does this, he must be put to death." How can a non-Jew who is considering conversion justify committing themselves to a law that they consider themselves breaking if they don't, for example, stone an adulterer and adulteress?

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I'll comment briefly so that you don't have to wait for a proper answer to get some clarification. 1. The Talmud derives from the Torah that capital cases cannot be tried unless the High Court of 71 judges presides from the Temple Mount, a condition that hasn't existed for 2,000 years. 2. The Torah indicates that cases must be tried by a court of judges, and the Talmud derives exegetically that only a superior court of 23 judges can try capital cases. 3. The Torah requires two valid witnesses and extensive investigation for a conviction, as well as other criteria. –  Fred Jun 13 at 6:33
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Thanks for a quick and satisfactory preliminary answer. –  Andrew Jun 13 at 6:41
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There are a few possible misunderstandings of aspects of Judaism implied in this question. @Fred addressed one of them. Another: Judaism has no problem with non-Jews remaining non-Jews. So, for example, if a non-Jew were to approach a rabbi and say "What should I do if I'm considering conversion, but I could never commit to keeping Shabbat?" the rabbi would likely say "So don't convert." –  Isaac Moses Jun 13 at 14:50
    
If I didn't have misunderstandings of Judaism I wouldn't be here clarifying them ;). I'd still like a detailed answer with respect to the Talmudic derivation of the establishment of a capital court from the Torah. Also, I'm a bit confused. In the related posts the comment is made "a court who executes more than ... is considered a murderous court", which seems to imply multiple courts, whereas these answers seem to imply a single court. Unless they mean that these courts are separated by time, and not distance, that seems contradictory. –  Andrew Jun 15 at 20:42

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