Can anyone bring me proofs from the Gemara that proves the world was round-and that this was known 2000+ years ago?
I have looked around and I can't seem to find any sources which prove this.
See Gemara in Avoda Zara (41a) which says:
כדור שתופש את עצמו תחת כל העולם כולו ככדור
It [The Idol] holds a ball as if to say it rules over the entire world like a ball
Tosfos explains why a ball is used as the imagery of ruling over the world (S.V K'kadur) says:
ככדור. שהעולם עגול כדאיתא בירושלמי שאלכסנדרוס מוקדון עלה למעלה עד שראה כל העולם ככדור ואת הים כקערה פי' ים אוקינוס שמקיף את כל העולם:
"Because the World is round"
Tosfos references a Yerushalmi which echoes this point: "Alexander the Macedonian ascended on high until he saw the earth like a ball and the sea like a platter. The 'sea' refers to the ocean that encompasses the entire earth"
We see here that Chazal (as well as the Romans) had the knowledge that the world was round