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If someone accepted shabbos early (tosafot shabbat), and remembered he didn't put on tefillin that day, may he put on Tefilin in order not to miss a day of performing that mitzva, or is he already bound by the prohibition of putting on Tefilin on Shabbos?

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You may also want to indicate why one would want to don the tefillin, and why you think doing so may be problematic. – Double AA May 30 '14 at 23:31
I can't believe a person would need more clarity in this question. It's pretty clear! And in regards why it would be problematic is because it's technically shabbat for that person, at the same time in reality it isn't. – David Feigen May 31 '14 at 0:47
Probably he would not be able to put on tefillin just as he cannot do melacha or daven mincha. This is from logic only so I am leaving it as a comment. – sabbahillel Jun 1 '14 at 2:14
There is a prohibition of donning Tefillin on Shabbos? Can you source this? Why should Halacha care about "miss[ing] a day of [the] mitzva"? – Double AA Jun 1 '14 at 13:41
both tefillin and shabbos are refereed to as a sign between G-d and the Jewish people. we don't wear tefillin on shabbos b/c the day itself is that sign and wearing tefillin would take away from the sancityty of the day by doing something superfluous. Yom Tov as well is sometimes refered to as shabbos and while some of the restictions regarding melacha are less strict for yom tov we apply the same reasoning to holidays as well. In regards to chol hamoed there is a dispute. Ashkenazim typically do while Sephardim and many Chassidim do not wear tefillin on chol haMoed – Dude Jun 2 '14 at 14:32

According to Achronim in the end of Siman 30 they discuss on a regular day of the week if one already Davend Ma'ariv he would still put on Tefilin, in Mishna Berurah 600:7 he mentions about a scenario of a congregation who did not blow the Shofar on Rosh Hashana until after they were Mekabel Shabbos - he says that they blow without a Beracha, accordingly one would put on Tefilin in the scenario in question.

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but shofar is a mitzva chiyuvis – Double AA Jun 15 '14 at 7:00
@DoubleAA And Tefilin is not?! – Meir Zirkind Jun 15 '14 at 7:00
Sorta. Most people don't wear tefillin whenever they are "supposed" to. Are you suggesting putting on tefillin after early maariv every night because of the obligation?? – Double AA Jun 15 '14 at 7:01
Please don't bother me with Shtusim – Meir Zirkind Jun 15 '14 at 7:02
You're the one with the poor analogy. I wasn't aware that trying to do the mitzva of shofar is of the same value as keeping your "tefillin-streak" alive. – Double AA Jun 15 '14 at 7:02

The Sefer Avnei Yashfei 8:54:1 writes that if one forgot to put on teffilin and was mekabel shabbas after plag and even made kiddush(actual story happened) he can put on teffilin since he accepted shabbas by mistake and would not forgo his mitzva of teffilin if he remembered. He brings a few sources for support,the Taz 600:2,The Shoel U'Mashiv 2:23 and it is also brought in the Mahrsham(Daas Torah 261:1).

He brings The Shevet Hakhasei 5:49 who holds one should put on teffilin but without the bracha,this is also mashmah from the Taz(600:2)

He also held that the bachur had to make kiddush a second time,since when he put on teffilin it shows he said it by mistake and it really was not shabbas for him yet(if one would ask about a bracha levatalh ,he talks about it later on in the tshuva)

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