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The Talmud (Sanhendrin 99a) states:

He who defiles sacred objects, he who violates the intermediate days of the festivals, or he who embarrasses another person in public, even if they are learned in Torah and have done many good deeds, lose their portion in the eternal world.

Defiling sacred objects and embarassing others is pretty clear, but how exactly do you violate Hol Hamoed (intermediate days of the festivals)? The primary days of the festivals have the 39 melachot (except cooking), but the melachot don't apply during Chol Hamoed!

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There are many things one can violate on the intermediate days, see here halachipedia.com/index.php?title=Chol_HaMoed#Forbidden_work –  user5488 May 29 at 15:35
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What is your source that the melachot don't apply during chol hamoed? –  Baby Seal May 29 at 15:46
    
@BabySeal From now deleted comment: "That's the whole reason it's called "Chol"--because you can do work." –  Double AA May 29 at 15:48

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Not unlike Yom Tov, Melacha is forbidden on Chol Hamoed with certain exceptions. The opening line of the Shulchan Aruch's discussing these laws is (Shulchan Aruch OC 530):

חול המועד אסור בקצת מלאכות ומותר במקצתן
Chol Hamoed is forbidden in some labors and permitted in some of them.

Violating these Melachot would constitute violating Chol Hamoed.

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This answer could be improved if it contained more detail as to which melachot are off limits. –  Baby Seal May 29 at 15:46
    
@BabySeal I don't know why that is relevant. –  Double AA May 29 at 15:49
    
It would more thoroughly answer how you violate the intermediate days of a festival. –  Baby Seal May 29 at 15:50
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DoubleAA, Are you saying that if someone does anything the Shulchan Aruch forbids on Chol Hamoed, he loses his share in Olam Haba? That's a very strong statement. –  Ypnypn May 29 at 16:08
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@Ramin There are large volumes written about the laws of Chol Hamoed. I am not going to reproduce them all here in one SE answer. Try searching Google for melacha chol hamoed. –  Double AA Jun 1 at 5:16

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