Any academic or secular book (not written for a religious Jewish audience) will discuss Jewish philosophy from the perspective of the discipline of philosophy as a whole. You can start with this article on Jewish philosophy from the Jewish Virtual Library, which is pretty good, and go on to read books on specific areas of interest. For example, if you're looking for more on Medieval Jewish Philosophy, you should check out the Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy and the essays of Harry Wolfson, Zev Harvey, and the like.
As far as I know, there's no great book that goes through the entirety of Jewish philosophy as it relates to secular philosophy. There is "Jewish Philosophy: An Historical Introduction" by Norbert Samuelson, but its probably best for its "further reading" sections and doesn't go in to enough detail to actually compare Jewish and non-Jewish positions. The better option is to find a topic, or a time period, and look for books about that.