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מסכת עבודה זרה, דף לה עמוד ב explains how if one curdles milk with the sap of leaves from an orlah tree, the cheese is permitted. The reason is because the leaves are a separate entity from the fruits. Wouldn't the same apply to rennet and gelatin used as texture enhancements in foods?

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Why would it? How are rennet and gelatin different from their source in a way similar to how leaves are different from fruits? –  msh210 May 20 at 16:07
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The mishna Orla 1:7 states that only the fruit is prohibited with regards to Orla. Bartenura explains that Lev. 19:23 explicitly says es piryo, "its fruit." So the reason orla-sap-cheese is permitted is because the sap itself is kosher. Contrast with cheese made with rennet from a non-kosher-slaughtered cow, which is not kosher.

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Now what if I extracted an element from the fruit and I used it for a preservative? Is that really called consuming the fruit or a דבר מעמיד within the fruit. –  David Feigen May 23 at 23:25
    
@DavidFeigen if you extracted, say, a curdling enzyme from the fruit, yes that would be a davar hamaamid. The fruit is non-kosher, so what's extracted from it is too. (Preservatives, like a metabisulfate or the like, are unlikely to be "davar hamaamid" as your food looks identical one hour before and one hour after you add it. It just keeps it looking that way much longer!) –  Shalom May 23 at 23:50
    
Let me as you two questions. First of all is using a product extracted from an orlah fruit or any other דבר מעמיד a Torah prohibition? And if the answer is no, then what would be the laws of bitul in a case where the דבר מעמיד itself is rabbinic? –  David Feigen May 29 at 2:47
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