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Twenty-seven times (by my count) in Torah and in Ezekiel, we find the phrase אני ה׳ אלקיכם or אני ה׳ אלקיהם at the end of a pasuk (for example, Lev 25:55). In eight of these cases, the phrase is preceded by the word כי (for example, Lev 26:1).

Whenever the word כי is present, the trope is: כי - tevir, אני - merkha, ה׳ – tippekha, אלקיהם/כם - siluq. Whenever the word כי is not present, the trope is: אני - tippekha, ה׳ - merkha, אלקיהם/כם - siluq. The main difference to notice is that the main disjunctive in the phrase, the tippekha, is in different places. Note that this shouldn't be an effect of the word כי, because the tevir disjunctive is a lower lever disjunctive than tippekha, and so the placement of the tippekha should occur before the placement of the tevir.

Does anyone know what the implications are of the different teamim choices, or the inclusion/lack of כי? Are there any commentators (or grammarians/explicators of teamim) who discuss a difference in meaning between the two cases?

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Nehama Leibowitz, in the first volume of New Studies in Shemot (pp. 306-7), discusses the distinction between two possible syntactic structures of the first three words in Exodus 20:2.

(a) אנכי ה׳        אלהיך,
(b) אנכי        ה׳ אלהיך.

She cites Ibn Ezra and Shadal who discuss the two readings (they focus on Ex 20:2, the details of which aren't relevant to the question at hand). The distinction, as summarised nicely here, is as follows:

(a) "I, Whom you already know as Adoshem, am to be your God",
(b) "Let me introduce myself: I am the Lord your God".

(This answer doesn't address possible implications of כי introducing the phrase.)

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