Is there a law or any guidance about bringing a dead body into the house of God? I seem to remember there was something in Leviticus, but I can't find it.
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We learn from the Gemoro Pesachim 67 - extract:
The areas in the mishkan and later in the Beis Hamikdosh are described here
Follow the virtual tour of the Temple Mount here and you will see that there was the Ezrat Nashim - The Women's Courtyard which was part of the temple from which the Sha’ar Nikanor led on to the Azarah, the courtyard.
So we see that a dead body can be taken into the Temple up to Sha’ar Nikanor.
As indicated by the other answers here, no corpses (nor anyone who had recently touched one) were allowed in the Temple.
Today's synagogues are not the Temple in Jerusalem, and many funerals will begin at the synagogue, with the coffin inside the sanctuary, before proceeding to the cemetery. (If they do this, then Kohanim -- those of priestly descent -- will have to remain outside the synagogue while the coffin is in it.)
This is put into practice in
He is told this after