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Shulchan Aruch HaRav says:

קרקעית החצר אין צריך בדיקה לפי שעורבין ושאר עופות מצויין שם והם אוכלים כל חמץ שנופל ואפילו אם ידוע לו שיש שם בחצר ודאי חמץ אין צריך ליטלו משם בשעת בדיקת ליל י"ד ואפילו לכתחלה יכול להשליך חמץ לחצר קודם שתגיע שעה ששית וכשתגיע שעה ששית ילך לראות החמץ בחצר ואם עדיין הוא מונח שם שלא אכלוהו העורבים חייב לבערו מן העולם לגמרי מיד שיראנו כמו שיתבאר בסימן תמ"ה

ואין חוששין שמא ישכח לילך ולראותו כשתגיע שעה ששית שאף אם ישכח עליו אין כאן איסור שבודאי נטלוהו העורבין קודם שהגיע שעה ששית והוליכוהו למקום שבאו משם

In summary: Courtyard land does not require Bedikas Chametz because it is a certainty that birds or other animals ate it, and one can even throw Chametz there erev Pesach in the morning.

In contemporary urban settings, while there are birds, they are not so thorough about eating things. See of example this picture of a New York street:

Image of Pidgin next to Chametz

Those who live around there will tell you that that kind of thing will stay around a while.

Note 1: This may be a function of the Chametz more than the birds, as processed foods seem less popular. Drop grass seeds and they are gone in a few hours.

Note 2: The particular picture is in a Makom Hefker - the public street, not a backyard, but the birds are not more active in back yards.

So the question is: in such a setting are there additional requirements for Bedikas Chametz in courtyards and/or limitations on throwing chametz into them?

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‎‎+‎1 In addition, what about a fenced in yard that animals cannot enter? –  Shmuel Apr 13 at 23:04
    
Oddly, the OU guide says that you must clean your car, office, and school locker, but makes no mention of your yard. oukosher.org/passover/articles/bedikat-chametz –  Shmuel Apr 14 at 2:48
    
The Star-K guide to Shabbat Erev Pesach says "one may eat outside on the porch or the backyard (if it is permissible to carry - i.e. within a reshus hayachid). Recite hamotzi, eat the rolls then sweep the crumbs off the table and off the porch." I haven't looked at any "real" sefarim, but it appears no one is concerned about the outdoors. –  Shmuel Apr 14 at 2:50

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