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Imagine that the Cohen family reunion is on a Monday. A minyan is planned with a sefer Torah. However, the gabbai, a kohen, looks around and sees that the minyan has nine kohanim and one levi - who married into the family. Normally, the first aliyah goes to a kohen, the second to a levi, and the third to an Israelite. But since, here, there are no Israelites, how should the aliyahs be given?

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I don't know the source, but the Maharam mi Rothenburg ruled that the remaining aliyot to should go to women or children, although I don't know what the case would be if the kids were kohanim as well. –  Noach mi Frankfurt Apr 7 at 16:27
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@sharshi That comment looks like an answer to me. –  Avrohom Yitzchok Apr 7 at 16:42
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@AvrohomYitzchok Then combined they form an answer. –  Double AA Apr 7 at 20:59
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@NoachmiFrankfurt It's Shut Maharam Prague 4:108 but it is rejected by the Shulchan Aruch. –  Double AA Apr 9 at 23:18

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Shulchan Aruch O"C 135:12:

עיר שכולה כהנים אם יש ישראל אחד ביניהם אותו ישראל קורא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום וכל שאין בהם ישראל כדי סיפוקם או שאין שם ישראל כלל קורא כהן אחר כהן שאין שם משום פגם שהכל יודעים שאין שם אלא כהנים והוא הדין לעיר שכולה לוים:‏

A city in which all are Kohanim, If there is one Yisrael among them, he's called up first because of Darkei Shalom - in the interests of peace [among the Kohanim].

When it says Yisrael here it means a non-Kohein (ie. Levi) for the same reason - so as not to cause strife among the Kohanim. Like the Ta"z implies ibid ד"ה מפני דרכי שלום:

וע״כ נ״ל דאם יש לוי ג״כ באותה עיר דהיינו שיש ישראל א׳ או ב׳ ולוי א׳ או ב׳ והשאר כהנים דאז אזלי׳ בתר סדר המשנה וקורא כהן לוי ישראל ואח״כ הכהנים

See here: http://www.dailyhalacha.com/m/halacha.aspx?id=2156

Edit: The Mishna Berura 45 writes explicitly that the same din (non Kohen is called up first) applies when there is only one Levi in town. He reads first for that reason (darchei sholom).

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