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Are there any halachic parameters regarding a building which has an aron kodesh in it and what may or may not be built on top, meaning on the floors above? For example it would seem to me that it would be inappropriate to build a bathroom or bedroom directly above a room which contains an aron kodesh.

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This happens all the time in big cities where minyanim or even small shuls are found in tall buildings. –  Double AA Mar 26 at 1:32

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See Shulchan Aruch - Orach Chaim 151:12

יב יֵשׁ לִזָּהֵר מִלְּהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ (טז) בָּעֲלִיּוֹת שֶׁעַל גַּבֵּי בֵּית הַכְּנֶסֶת תַּשְׁמִישׁ קָבוּעַ שֶׁל גְּנַאי, כְּגוֹן לִשְׁכַּב שָׁם; וּשְׁאָר תַּשְׁמִישִׁים, יֵשׁ לְהִסְתַּפֵּק אִם מֻתָּר לְהִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ שָׁם.

הגה: וְכָל זֶה דַּוְקָא בְּבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת קָבוּעַ, שֶׁנִּבְנָה מִתְּחִלָּה לְכָךְ, אֲבָל בַּיִת שֶׁיִּחֲדוּ לְאַחַר שֶׁנִּבְנָה לְבֵית הַכְּנֶסֶת, מֻתָּר לִשְׁכַּב עָלָיו (פִּסְקֵי מַהֲרִי''ו).

באר היטב (טז) עליו. ומ''מ שומר נפשו ירחיק מזה כנה''ג. וכתב ט''ז בילדותי הייתי דר בק''ק קראקא למעלה מבה''כ בבית מדרשי ונענשתי הרבה במיתת בנים ותליתי בזה:

Summary:

The prohibition is not only above the Aaron HaKodesh - it's above a shul in general.

Not recommended uses include sleeping - and obviously bathrooms and toilets. Not living there is recommended.

However, there may be loopholes if the shul was built/created after the homes were built.

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