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I understand why we have a leap year; to keep the sun and moon cycles in sync, so that Pessach is always in the spring.

That's all technical, as a result of the moon orbiting too slowly - or the sun too fast.

On a philosophical / theological level, why did Hashem create the world in such a way that a leap year is needed?

What does Hashem expect to achieve (or rather expect us to achieve/accomplish) with this extra month?

Surely there's some aspect of Avodat Hashem that depends (or can be improved) by understanding the point of the The Leap Year concept.

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Why did Hashem create the world requiring some months to have 29 days and some months to have 30 days? –  C. Ben Yosef Mar 12 at 14:08
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@C.BenYosef - kind of a related question, on a smaller scale, but more frequent. –  Danny Schoemann Mar 12 at 15:21

2 Answers 2

To solar cycle represents continuity and consistency. The lunar cycle represents rise and fall, והחיות רצוא ושוב.

The two cycles don't inherently mesh, and it takes the actions of people (as represented by Beis Din which sets the leap year) to combine the two.

See here for a similar expression of this idea.

In terms of lessons in Avodas Hashem, there are many. But one obvious one is that in Torah you have the idea of Chiddush (innovation) - כל מה שתלמיד ותיק עתיד לחדש נתנה למשה מסיני - Whatever a zealous student will innovate was given to Moshe at Sinai (Yerushalmi Peah Chapter 2). Questions, answers and uncertainty on the one hand, but with the solid basis of Torah MiSinai on the other.

It takes zealous learning (Beis Din) to create a chiddush in harmony with Torah Misinai, and not מגלה פנים בתורה שלא כהלכה - propounding ideas as Torah which contradict Halacha.

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Thanks, @Yishai, but I am still left with my questions - why is the leap year needed, and what does Hashem expect to achieve (or rather expect us to achieve/accomplish) with this extra month? –  Danny Schoemann Mar 13 at 9:56
    
@DannySchoemann, Um, the answer certainly attempts to address those questions. Perhaps you can elaborate on how you feel they remain unanswered? –  Yishai Mar 13 at 13:28
    
you are doing a great job explaining the lunar cycle and its lessons. But you are not explaining what "the extra Adar" is supposed to teach us. (Assumption: It can't just be an "accident" of the disjoint between the solar and lunar calendars.) –  Danny Schoemann Mar 23 at 10:56
    
@DannySchoemann, you mean an extra month generally, or a second Adar specifically? –  Yishai Mar 24 at 21:00
    
Reb @Yishai, as a first stab, I'd like to understand why there's an extra month every so often (7/19 years) - what does Hashem want/expect us to do with this extra month? As a bonus we can discuss why it's Adar in particular. –  Danny Schoemann Mar 25 at 9:47

It does have the effect of making Adar longer with its increased happiness. (This is an incomplete answer, but I can not just add a comment)

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