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Rabbi Shimon Eider Zatzal brings in his Sefer that the Minhag is to put on Tefilin from one to three months before the Bar Mitzva.

To the best of knowledge there are three different schools of thought as to when one should begin putting on Tefilin. On the day of the Bar Mitzva, one month prior, or three months prior. What is the reasoning and source for these different Minhagim?

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Another custom is two months before. – Yishai Mar 3 '14 at 20:01
Another is one day prior – Double AA Mar 3 '14 at 21:43
Another (cited and rejected strongly by Aruch Hashulchan 37:4) is that an orphan starts on his twelfth birthday. – msh210 Mar 4 '14 at 2:02
all your answers here judaism.stackexchange.com/q/2247/759 – Double AA Mar 4 '14 at 4:09
another is when your father sees that you are ready to put on tafeeleen, could be 8 9 10 11... – MoriDoweedhYaa3qob Mar 4 '14 at 5:41
up vote 3 down vote accepted

Regarding those that put on Tefilin one month prior to their Bar Mitzva - Tzitz Eliezer 13:10 - U'Chiyadua says that it is done since it was unclear whether one who is born in a year where there is one Adar, and becomes Bar Mitzva in a year where there are two Adar's when his Bar Mitzva is, therefore they put on Tefilin in Adar1 even though they celebrate the Bar Mitzva in Adar2. Due to that they made the Minhag for all Bar Mitzva boys to put on Tefilin one month prior.

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