Why is Tzom Gedalya known as Tzom Gedalya and Taanis Esther as Taanis Esther. Why not Taanis Gedalya or Tzom Esther?
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Tzom is the word used most often in Biblical Hebrew to mean "fast" (such as in Isaiah in Esther); the word Taanis doesn't appear until the Book of Ezra, which was later (about two hundred years after Isaiah).
Hence, Tzom Gedalya is called Tzom because it is mentioned in Tanakh (Zechariah 8:19), while Taanis Esther uses the more modern term Taanis because it was established much later (after the closing of the Talmud in the 5th century CE).