When in history did Purim happen? I understand that there are several opinions that this is based on (who אחשורוש was, whether this was before or after the end of the exile), but I've been unable to find the sources related to it.
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From Codex Judaica pg. 112: they started to rebuild the Second Temple in 3391 Jewish year (-370) Achashverosh the second made his banquet in the year 3395 (-366). In the year 3406 (-355) Mordichai proclaimed the celebration of Purim.
Rabbi Yehuda Landy wrote an in depth book (Purim and the Persian Empire ISBN: 978-1598265194) about which Achashverosh was part of the Purim story,and has many archaeological pictures and finds which help determine who and what.
The story of purim happened about 70 years after the destruction of the first temple which happened around year 422 BCE