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If a non-Jew does an act which would be considered a kiddush Hashem or chillul Hashem if done by a Jew, does it have the same status?

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You're asking about the definitions of kidush hashem and chilul hashem (specifically, whether those definitions include the possibility of a gentile's causing then)? In my (limited) experience, Judaism doesn't go into a question of semantics like that unless there's some practical outcome of the question. Or, in yeshivish, may nafka minah? –  msh210 Jan 30 at 16:41
there were some very righteous nonjews such as Job. once heard had he not complained we would be saying "the God of Job" in the amida –  user813801 19 hours ago

2 Answers 2

In the Yerushalmi in מסכת שביעית פרק ד הלכה ב we learn the following:

רבי אבונה בעי קומי רבי אימי: עכו"ם מהו שיהו מצווין על קידוש השם? אמר ליה: ונקדשתי בתוך בני ישראל ישראל מצווין על קידוש השם, ואין העכו"ם מצווין על קידוש השם! ר' נסא בשם ר' אלעזר שמע להן מן הדא: (מלכים ב ה) לדבר הזה יסלח ה' לעבדך וגו' ישראל מצווין על קידוש השם ואין העכו"ם מצווין על קידוש השם. ‏

Rabbi Avuna asked Rabbi Eimi: ""Can a non-Jew perform a Kiddush Hashem?

He answered: [The Pasuk in] (ויקרא כ"ב-ל"ב) says וְנִקְדַּשְׁתִּי בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל - I will be sanctified within the Bnei Yisrael; Beni Yisrael are commanded to sanctify His Name, and non-Jews are not commanded to sanctify His Name.

R' Nisa in the name of R' Elazar learnt it from here: [When Na'aman takes leave from Elisha HaNavi, he promises not to worship idols anymore. However, he says] לַדָּבָ֣ר הַזֶּ֔ה יִסְלַ֥ח ה' לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ בְּב֣וֹא אֲדֹנִ֣י בֵית-רִמּוֹן֩ לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֹ֨ת שָׁ֜מָּה וְה֣וּא | נִשְׁעָ֣ן עַל-יָדִ֗י וְהִֽשְׁתַּחֲוֵ֙יתִי֙ בֵּ֣ית רִמֹּ֔ן בְּהִשְׁתַּחֲוָיָ֙תִי֙ בֵּ֣ית רִמֹּ֔ן יִסְלַח-(נא) ה' לְעַבְדְּךָ֖ בַּדָּבָ֥ר הַזֶּֽה - that when he the King of Aram goes to worship idols, while leaning on Na'aman's arm, Na'aman will bow with the king and not risk his life.

Elisha does not object, but says וַיֹּ֥אמֶר ל֖וֹ לֵ֣ךְ לְשָׁל֑וֹם and approves. No concept of a non-Jew performing a Kiddush Hashem .

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Wow. Bifeirush and all. +1 –  user6591 12 hours ago
You've very nicely demonstrated that there is no mitzvah chiyuvis but there may very well still be a mitzvah kiyumis as they have for many other mitzvas like tzedaka chessed and many others. –  Yoni 8 hours ago
@Yoni, once the Mitzva is for a certain group - בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל in this case - then it's usually not applicable to other groups. A Levi cannot do Birkas Cohanim - and we don't say "there is no mitzvah chiyuvis but there may very well still be a mitzvah kiyumis". –  Danny Schoemann 6 hours ago
@Yoni - "as they have for many other mitzvas like tzedaka chessed and many others" could use a source. Maybe it's included in one of their 7? –  Danny Schoemann 6 hours ago

Kiddush/chillul Hashem taken to mean showing the world that this is how Hashem's chosen people behaves:

No, by definition: The gentile cannot be representative of a group he does not belong to.

Kiddush/chillul Hashem taken to mean letting one self be killed rather than doing something for which one is required to let oneself be killed rather than doing:

Yes, by definition (at least theoretically): If that is the label of an act, and he did that act, then it has that label.* (However, as per Sanhedrin 74b, there may not be any actions requiring a gentile to sacrifice his life, rendering occurrence impossible.)

* My head spins from reading my own words!

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Do non-Jews have a commandment to die rather than transgress? To be killed for a transgression that you aren't meant to be killed for is subject to machlokes rishonim if it's even allowed - I assume that wouldn't be a kiddush Hashem if they don't have such an injunction. –  YeZ Jan 30 at 20:15
@YEZ AFAIK, yes, the "three big ones" are yehareg v'al ya'avor even for goyim. –  NBZ Jan 30 at 20:19
@YEZ Sanhedrin 74b NBZ It seems they are not obligated, so your second point is tenuous at best. –  Double AA Jan 30 at 20:21
Why does one have to belong to a group to show the world that's how they behave? What if the non-Jew publicizes a story about a Jew doing a positive thing? –  Double AA Jan 30 at 20:21
@NBZ hebrewbooks.org/… from the ein mishpat to sanhedrin 74, and probably also hebrewbooks.org/… –  Double AA Jan 30 at 21:24

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