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Starting with the dibros, YbU introduces some mitzvos with the words 'Ami bnei Yisrael" and I don't see the pattern as to when he does and when he doesn't. Anyone have an idea which ones deserve this intro?

Additionally, on at least one occasion it is "Ami beis Yisrael" (Vayikra 25:36 - immediately followed with an "ami bnei Yisrael" intro in the next verse).

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That Targum is probably not Yonatan Ben Uziel's: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Targum_Pseudo-Jonathan. This puzzled me too! – Baby Seal Jan 26 '14 at 5:48
here is Yisro targum.info/pj/pjex18-20.htm and here is Mishpatim targum.info/pj/pjex21-24.htm in English Targum Pseudo-Yonasan. Search for my people in Chrome and it will highlight each instance in yellow. Then it might be easier to identify the pattern. – josh waxman Jan 26 '14 at 12:46
The pattern I've spotted so far: beginning of new idea / section, where it is directed towards second person ("you") as opposed to third person ("he"). Thus this gets no such intro: Whosoever smiteth a son or a daughter of Israel, so as to cause death. But this gets the intro: If thou lend money to (one of) My people, to (one of) the humble of My people. – josh waxman Jan 26 '14 at 12:51
@joshwaxman but what about the second verse? "When thou shalt acquire a Hebrew slave..." – Baby Seal Jan 26 '14 at 17:37
@joshwaxman also the beginning of chapter 23 says it many times, all on the topic of judicial process. – Baby Seal Jan 26 '14 at 17:42

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