I apologize if this is a sensitive topic, but it seems that this question is foundational to some of the discussions that appear here. I hope that my wording is appropriate.
If I understand correctly, halacha identifies four gender categories (זכר, נקבה, אנדרוגינוס, and טומטום). This status has substantial bearing on practical application of Torah.
I suspect that modern discoveries such as chromosomes and internal imaging are not directly relevant in determining gender according to halacha. So what then is the halachic definition? Is one's sex then determined solely by the visible presence of reproductive organs or other bodily features? If so:
- Do internal organs play a role, or only external ones?
- Does one's halachic gender change if one's organs change (either naturally, accidentally, or artificially)?