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Why do we say "Hashem" instead of "Ado Nai" when that is instead of pronouncing the yud-hei-vav and hei?

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The Meforshim on the Mishna at the bottom of Yoma 35b discuss it.

IIRC it's the Ritva who says that when we quote a Pasuk we say the Real Name as mentioned in the Pasuk, but when we tell a story we say Hashem.

Thus in the Yom Kippour Machzon during the Avoda section in Mussaf we recount how the Kohen Gadol says "Hashem" during his Viduy and then we quote a Pasuk mentioning Gɔd's name explicitly.

BTW: Twice in the Torah it says Hashem when referring to Gɔd:

יקב בן-האשה הישראלית את-השם- Vayikra 24

ליראה את-השם הנכבד והנורא - Devorim 28

But in any case, we never say the yud-hei-vav and hei as it's written, as the Gemara teaches us in Kidushin 71a and Pessachim 50a:

רבי אבינא רמי כתיב (שמות ג) זה שמי וכתיב (שמות ג) זה זכרי אמר הקב"ה לא כשאני נכתב אני נקרא נכתב אני ביו"ד ה"י ונקרא באל"ף דל"ת

In Yoma 18b we find that even after the Cohen Gadol said the yud-hei-vav and hei name, people [miraculously] forgot it:

עשרה פעמים היה כהן גדול מזכיר את השם ביום הכפורים ששה בפר וג' בשעיר ואחד בגורלות הקרובים היו נופלין על פניהן הרחוקים היו אומרים בשכמל"ו אלו ואלו לא היו זזים משם עד שהוא מתעלם מהן (שמות ג) זה שמי לעולם זה שמי לעלם.‏

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Then why do we say "Ado Nai" instead of the actual name? –  Avram Levitt Dec 16 '13 at 10:04
    
@AvramLevitt - I added that to the answer. –  Danny Schoemann Dec 16 '13 at 13:59
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