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The Rambam explains one type of Chillul Hashem as follows (מיי' הל' יסודי התורה פ"ה הי"ד):

ויש דברים אחרים שהם בכלל חילול השם, והוא שיעשה אדם גדול בתורה ומפורסם בחסידות, דברים שהברייות מרננים אחריו בשבילן, ואף על פי שאינם עבירות--הרי זה מחלל את השם: כגון שלוקח ואינו נותן דמי הלקח לאלתר, והוא שיש לו, ונמצאו המוכרין תובעין אותו, והוא מקיפן; או שירבה בשחוק, או באכילה ושתייה אצל עמי הארץ וביניהן; או שאין דיבורו בנחת עם הברייות, ואינו מקבילן בסבר פנים יפות, אלא בעל קטטה וכעס; וכיוצא בדברים האלו. הכול לפי גודלו של חכם--צריך שידקדק על עצמו, ויעשה לפנים משורת הדין.

There are some other things included in Chillul Hashem [besides those involving overtly breaking mitzvos]. This is when a person who is learned in Torah and famous for his piety performs actions that cause others to denigrate him; despite the fact that they are not technically aveiros, this is Chillul Hashem. For example, if a person buys an item and does not pay immediately despite the fact that he has money on him, and the seller demands it from him and he takes the item on credit. Or, if he is excessively merry, or eats or drinks excessively among simpletons. Or, if he does not speak gently to others, and does not receive them kindly, but is often angry and argumentative. All of these sort of things are Chillul Hashem. A wise man must be scrupulous in his behavior and go beyond the letter of the law, according to his greatness.

When I was in yeshiva an incident occured where a student in the IDF refused to attend a military concert where women were singing and lost his position. Our shiur was discussing the halacha of the situation afterwards, and our Rebbe vehemtly disagreed with the suggestion that the student's action might have been a Chillul Hashem. This Rebbe said that when one is doing a mitzvah, it is not considered a Chillul Hashem if other people are offended by that mitzvah itself. What I took from this was that the Rambam means that in regards to non-mitzvah-related actions, one must act in a way that will not garner disapproval from others, but if one is doing an actual mitzvah, then if others disapprove it is their own fault that they don't appreciate the mitzvah, and therefore it is not considered Chillul Hashem. I don't know exactly what our Rebbe's source for this was, but I think the Chinuch agrees with him (see מצווה תכא: להניח תפלין על היד from "והמחמירים בקדושת המצוה" on, where he brings an opinion that it is a Chillul Hashem to wear tefillin when one's actions are not befitting, and argues on it).

Now here is my question: I was wondering whether this applies in the case where one is discussing or explaining Torah principles. There are certain halachos and hashkafic principles that are not "politically correct," and kiruv Rabbis and other Orthodox Jews who regularly interact with non-Orthodox Jews often avoid talking about them or whitewash them. (Examples: the issur to teach gentiles Torah, the laws of apikorsus, many gemaras discussing women, etc.) Now I understand that pragmatically it may be a bad idea to tell the non-Orthodox and gentiles about these details, since it might make it less likely that they will reach a higher level of avodas Hashem1. The question, though, is whether it is a Chillul Hashem to tell them about these things. Perhaps it is similar to the case of the incident I mentioned above, but this case is a little different since one is not actually performing a mitzvah. Would the Rambam say that one must "speak gently" and not reveal these things –slash– frame them in an overly positive way, or would he say that in the case of talking about Torah principles this law doesn't apply?

1(For example, the Rambam says on Avos 2:14 that דע מה להשיב לאפיקורס doesn't apply if the heretic is a Jew, since he may become more entrenched in his ways if you try to argue with him.)

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"Slash"? Oh my. I hope that doesn't hurt. –  Seth J Dec 11 '13 at 20:07
    
On the substance, can you cite anyone saying anything similar? For example, do you know of anyone who says that we shouldn't discuss miracles with non-believers because they might ridicule the Torah? (+1, though.) –  Seth J Dec 11 '13 at 20:11
    
@SethJ I added the Rambam's comment on דע מה להשיב לאפיקורס. Let me know if you were thinking of some other source in particular. –  Malper Dec 12 '13 at 0:36
    
This question would be stronger if you could cite an established text who took the opinion of your Rebbe. –  Double AA Dec 12 '13 at 0:44
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For a posible source for your Rebbe's opinion, see also Mesilat Yesharim Ch. 20 (be-Mishqal ha-Chasidut), especially starting s.v. "הנה חייב האדם לשמור"( near the end of the chapter). –  Tamir Evan Dec 12 '13 at 4:52
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2 Answers

We have laws that some things can not be taught to certain people. Teaching those people laws that you are not allowed to teach, especially if doing so makes Gd look bad, is certainly a Chilul Hashem.

Because of the public nature of this forum, I do not want to list what things you are not allowed to teach to which people. But as you brought up in your question, "the issur to teach gentiles Torah". Another commonly known one is that you can not teach Ma'eseh Bereshit in front of more then one or two students.

You mentioned in your question:

Perhaps it is similar to the case of the incident I mentioned above, but this case is a little different since one is not actually performing a mitzvah.

Incorrect, teaching Torah is a Mitzvah. When one is allowed to teach Torah. Talmud Torah is mainly about teaching. See here: Rambam on the Mitzvah of Talmud Torah

Would the Rambam say that one must "speak gently" and not reveal these things / frame them in an overly positive way, or would he say that in the case of talking about Torah principles this law doesn't apply?

As you stated in your question, the only time this does not apply is when one is doing a mitzvah. Since in the situations you mentioned, you are most likely not doing a mitzvah, and are likely in fact teaching someone who you are not supposed to teach (though not technically violating any of the negative commandments), then doing so is obviously a Chilul Hashem.

This is made explicitly clear by the Rambam in your question:

This is when a person who is learned in Torah and famous for his piety performs actions that cause others to denigrate him; despite the fact that they are not technically aveiros, this is Chillul Hashem.

If what you are doing is not technically an aveirah, and what you are doing is not technically a mitzvah, then everything that Rambam says about Chillul Hashem applies.

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That's not obvious to me at all. What is your source? –  Malper Dec 12 '13 at 14:43
    
The Rambam in the question. It's simple logic. The Rambam in the question defines what Chilul Hashem is. I'm simplyfing that as "makes Gd look bad." Teaching people who are not allowed to be taught, is a violation of halacha or atleast common sense, and thus falls under Rambam's definition. –  avi Dec 12 '13 at 15:10
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How do you know that that's the reason for the issur of teaching gentiles Torah? I heard a different reason. –  Malper Dec 12 '13 at 15:59
    
@Malper it's not the reason... But since teaching that piece of Torah, is a violation of something, then you can't say you are doing a mitzvah, and thus all the rules of chilul hashem apply. –  avi Dec 15 '13 at 12:58
    
But my whole question is whether chillul Hashem applies when you're not doing a mitzvah. That just begs the question. –  Malper Dec 15 '13 at 17:30
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I mentioned above, but this case is a little different since one is not actually performing a mitzvah.

I would like to clarify the difference if I may. The boy who refused to listen to a woman sing is refraining from a sin. Chillul Hashem is an aveirah when one has a choice, on the other hand when one is commanded by g-d not to do something there is no aveirah of chillul hashem whether or not it causes someone to think bad things about g-d or his torah. G-d knows that not everyone will understand his mitzvos and he commanded them anyways. On the other hand to discuss the laws of the torah that are hard to understand with someone who is skeptical and will ridicule them is not something we are commanded to do so we do not have the above logic. Also we must keep in mind that much of the time we do not understand g-ds laws well enough to clearly explain it to someone who is skeptical so the chances of teaching it incorrectly are great enough that it may result in a chillul hashem by teaching it incorrectly. Meaning that to do this needs a very strong purpose and a very knowledgeable person.

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