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In Megillas Esther 3:1 Haman is called the Agagite which I always assumed meant he was a descendant of Agag the king of the Amalekite in 1 Shmuel 15:8. His lineage is confirmed in Megillah 13a as being a genetic descendent of Agag the Amalekite.

ומה שילם לי ימיני דלא קטליה שאול לאגג דאתיליד מיניה המן

If the point is to tell us that Haman was an Amalekite, why not just say so explicitly?

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Maybe he's just from the city of Agag. Many rabbis have called the Nazis Amelekites, but that doesn't mean they were literal descendants of Amalek the person. – Double AA Dec 10 '13 at 15:18
I believe my answers judaism.stackexchange.com/a/29253/899 and judaism.stackexchange.com/a/29255/899 are relevant but not quite enough to answer the specific question. – Yirmeyahu Dec 10 '13 at 15:32
@DoubleAA there is a halachic difference between saying he was actually an amalekey and saying he acted in the spirit of the amalekey – please remove my account Dec 10 '13 at 15:45
@pleaseremovemyaccount I saw it. That doesn't mean it's meant to be literal. It's a piece of aggadata in an extended Midrash Aggada. If you are going to ask about every aggadata why it isn't explicitly in the text, you should probably first read some more about the nature of aggadata. – Double AA Dec 10 '13 at 17:56
@pleaseremovemyaccount Severely lacking. שמעי is listed as Mordochai's grandfather. Yet שמעי בן גרא lived about 500-700 years before Mordochai. Credulous or not? – Double AA Dec 10 '13 at 20:06
up vote 6 down vote accepted

R' Rachmiel Zelcer in סימן יב of his נר למאה on פורים cites the צפנת פענח on מסכת סופרים: The name of Agag, king of Amalek, was in fact Hamdata. And "Agag" is actually the title for kings of Amalek. So why does the מגילה call Haman an Agagite (instead of Amalekite)? Since Sanherib mixed up all the nations, we can't be certain that any individual is in fact an Amalekite. However, the Mordechai in chapter eight of Yevamot cites the רא"ם that descendants of royalty were not mixed up by Sanherib. Therefore, by using the term Agagite, the מגילה is revealing that Haman descended from royalty and thus his identity as an Amalekite was certain.

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Haman is called an Agagite to link him directly to the failure of Saul to kill Agag before he could reproduce.

Mordechai and Saul were both of the tribe of Benjamin and it is literately significant that one Benjaminite avenges the failure of another. That is why it is specified that he is an Agagite and not a mere Amalekite. I have also heard that Mordechai was a gilgul of Saul.

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