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Being a Muslim and a student of comparative religion, I am interested to know what is the Jewish notion of prophethood particularly pertaining to gentiles. I have come to know that Job and Bilaam were among the gentiles but are still recognized as prophets.

What really made the Jews of Arabia reject Muhammad's prophethood as he was also among the gentiles just like Job and Bilaam?

May peace and blessings be upon all the prophets of God (amen).

Looking forward to authentic and logical replies. Thanks

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Similar: judaism.stackexchange.com/questions/30121/… –  Isaac Moses Nov 21 '13 at 23:12
There have been billions of gentiles (and Jews, for that matter) whom the Jews have not identified as prophets. There is no reason, a priori to expect Judaism to identify this particular person as one. –  Isaac Moses Nov 21 '13 at 23:14
Job and Bilaam are Mentioned in the bible. Bilaam explicitly received prophecy. This is far different than someone coming much later, claiming to be a prophet, and founding a competing religion. –  josh waxman Nov 22 '13 at 1:30
@IsaacMoses dupe? –  msh210 Nov 22 '13 at 3:15
@msh210, maybe. The question is: Does this question have the same off-topic problem (comparative religion) that that one does? If so, yes, dupe it. If not, leave it open. –  Isaac Moses Nov 22 '13 at 15:23
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2 Answers

Maimonides describes the qualifications of a Jewish prophet. He also describes how to discern a prophet who appears to meet the qualifications, but still is shown to not be an authentic prophet. Among them:

Therefore, if a prophet arises and attempts to dispute Moses' prophecy by performing great signs and wonders, we should not listen to him. We know with certainty that he performed those signs through magic or sorcery. [This conclusion is reached] because the prophecy of Moses, our teacher, is not dependent on wonders, so that we could compare these wonders, one against the other. Rather we saw and heard with our own eyes and ears as he did.

He goes on in the next chapter to describe something specific that would dispute Moses' prophecy:

Similarly, if [a "prophet"] nullifies a concept which was transmitted by the oral tradition, or states with regard to one of the Torah's laws that God commanded him to render such and such a judgment, or that such and such is the law regarding a particular instance and the decision follows a certain opinion, he is a false prophet and should be [executed by] strangulation. [This applies] even if he performs a wonder, for he is coming to deny the Torah, which states: "It is not in the heavens."

As far as I know, one of the claims of the Muslim religion (or perhaps the Koran itself?) is that the correctness of the texts of the Jewish Bible is disputed. This contradicts the idea of what is "transmitted by the oral tradition" at the most fundamental level.

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What about Bilam? –  Shmuel Brin Nov 21 '13 at 23:34
@ShmuelBrin, Bilam was a personally very flawed person, but what prophecy did he give that contradicts this? –  Yishai Nov 21 '13 at 23:40
@Yishai original muslims didnt say that tthe Torah text was changed. so to make your answer better, you should say that when mohammmed came and gave the quran he nullified many Torah commandments since the quran doesnt have certain commandments which the Torah has. –  MoriDoweedhYaa3gob Nov 22 '13 at 4:40
@MoriDoweedhYa3gob, I don't really know much about the contents of the Koran, or really all that much about the religion in general. Perhaps make your own answer? Or if you have other facts which contradict the Torah oral tradition, perhaps replace them in my answer. –  Yishai Nov 22 '13 at 14:31
It's not only oral tradition it's clear written Torah which is being nullified. Also I don't have time or the will do this. I've been in many of these discussions before and I'm tired of them. –  MoriDoweedhYaa3gob Nov 22 '13 at 16:33
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Anyone whose "prophesy" contradicts the prophecy of Moses even if they are able to perform wonders and miracles is automatically known to be false as the Torah is not a historical document nor bound to any specific time period but is applicable for all times and generations. One easy source to look up fundamental Jewish beliefs are the 13 principles of faith (Maimonides)

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Seems very similar to Yishai's answer (just without sources) –  Shmuel Brin Nov 25 '13 at 23:02
How does explaining the status of one who contradicts the prophecy of Moses tell us what the status of Mohammod is without any assertions about whether or not Mohammod contradicts the prophecy of Moses? Your "answer" doesn't even say the word Mohammod. –  Double AA Nov 25 '13 at 23:31
Comments removed: Please keep it civil. –  Monica Cellio Nov 26 '13 at 0:11
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