Is there an generally accepted Jewish understanding of who the subject is in Zechariah 14?
Reading the text, it seems there are at least 2 possibilities:
The subject is HaShem
- The text calls him "Adonai Tzeva'ot" repeatedly
- Uses the divine name to refer to him
- The subject comes out of heaven "with all his holy ones"
- He is worshiped in Jerusalem by representatives from all nations
The subject is mashiach
- The subject fights the wars of God.
- The subject causes all Israel (indeed, the whole earth) to follow God
- This passage tells of the institution of an era (Messianic era?) in which "the LORD will be King over all the earth" -
- All nations are going up to Jerusalem, similar to other messianic prophecies
- The text seems to indicate the subject is physically present and visible (he appears, sets feet on Mt. of Olives, wages war, etc.)
- He institutes universal acceptance of God, a sign of mashiach
- Sacrifices in the Temple are occurring, suggesting the Temple has been rebuilt, also a sign of mashiach
Other answers here on Mi Yodeya have suggested Zechariah's prophecies are indeed messianic, although none have mentioned Zechariah 14 specifically. I haven't been able to find authoritative Jewish opinions on the matter, however, other than a few Orthodox sites that link the passage to the Messianic Era.
Rashi's commentary on Zechariah 14 gives only a clue,
"For they [these days] will be the days of the Messiah, and there shall be no subjugation during these days."
Who is the subject of Zechariah 14?