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As a follow up to What was the formulation of the Bracha about Yerushalayim in the times of the Temple? - In what time period did we start praying Shemona Esrei? (sources)

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The Gemara in Megila 17b attributes it to the Anshei Keneses Hagedola, during the times of the prophets. Yoma 69b says that by adding "hagadol, hagibor vehanorah" they brought back that perception of Hashem to the world which was lost with the Churban Bais. So that would specifically place Shemona Esrei after the destruction of the first temple, at the end of the era of the Prophets.

As the Gemara continues (Megila 18a), the text was finalized in the time of Rabban Gamliel in Yanve, which would be towards the end of the Second Temple era - it seems from Brachos 28b that it was together with adding the 19th by Shmuel Hakatan, which would put it a couple of decades or so after the Churban Bais, I believe.

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What do you mean the text was finalized in the time of R"G? Where does the Gemara say that? Was the text just completely fluid before that point. –  Double AA Oct 15 '13 at 16:16
    
It is in the Gemara 18a. No, the text was forgotten prior to that (so we don't know what it was before that, although my understanding is that they felt more free to ad-lib than we do, which may have been the real issue - the original version was lost in all the variations). –  Yishai Oct 15 '13 at 16:24
    
I don't see any information about the text. Just that they forgot about saying 18 Brachot. Where do you see any indication of a complete fixed text? –  Double AA Oct 15 '13 at 16:25
    
@DoubleAA, that isn't my understanding of the Gemara. Feel free to bring a source that says otherwise, but it seems to me that they forgot the correct content, and he re-established it. –  Yishai Oct 15 '13 at 16:27
    
Rashba Brachot 11a. –  Double AA Oct 15 '13 at 16:29

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