I recall a high-school rebbe (teacher) of mine quoting a great rabbi as having said that, if someone religious becomes irreligious, then God will punish him for every time he does not wash his hands before eating bread.
I recently read the first chapter of The Thinking Jewish Teenager's Guide to Life. It's devoted to the idea that everyone always has a spiritual level, and that any seeming challenge not at that level is not considered a challenge for him — it is either something he will certainly do right or something he will certainly do wrong, even if merely out of habit — so he gets no reward or punishment for it.
I don't see that these two views can be reconciled. Most likely someone who loses his religion will not be at a level such that washing his hands before eating bread will be his challenge.
Are these two opposing views held by different philosophical rabbis or schools? What rabbis or schools? Or can they be reconciled? How?