It is an article of faith that Hashem directs our lives individually (hashgacha pratit), and part of that guidance includes instructions about what each person should or shouldn't be doing. If we had access to a prophet we could simply ask them what are Hashem's personalised directions, but in the absence of a prophet we have to decode and interpret these messages as we notice them in daily life.
What sources from the Talmud or elsewhere in Jewish tradition help an individual understand and correctly interpret these messages from Above? I am looking for universally applicable assertions such as this kind of event is an indication of this kind of judgement of your actions (ie. no stories about how Hashem sends you messages).