First, some background information:
You are correct that the recitation of Esheth Hayil was instituted - in fairly recent history by some latter-day Qabbalists - in order to praise the Shekhinah. This is also true with regard to the popularized "Shalom Alekhem" piyut which was composed to praise the spiritual beings which supposedly escort men home from the synagogue on Lel Shabboth (I say "supposedly" since both the concept of the "two angels" and being escorted by them are interpreted metaphorically by early authorities). Either way, these practices are not mentioned at all in the halakhic literature of Hazal and the actual halakhah is to come home on Lel Shabboth and begin immediately with Qidhush.
While it is certainly true that Mishlei 31 has been, since ancient times, been associated with nashim ssidqaniyoth ("righteous women") of the Tanakh (as found in Midrash HaGadhol, Midrash Tanhuma, and various geniza fragments - to list a few examples), there was never a practice to recite it on Lel Shabboth until the popularization of the Qabbalah in recent centuries.
The same holds true for the practice giving of berakhoth to one's children on Lel Shabboth; the custom is mentioned by Ashkenazi aharonim (like the Ya`avetz and the Gra, as well as the disciples of Arizal) and is given justification from the Qabbalah. Again, the practice is fairly recent and is not included in the halakhah (e.g. the Rambam, et al).
Now, to answer your question:
The reason that there is not a "blessing of the father or head of the family" is because there was never a concerted effort to create blessings or honorable mention for each member of the family on Friday night. Like I mentioned, the actual halakhah is to come home on Friday night and make Qidhush and begin the se`udhah immediately. The Qabbalists, however, seizing upon various mystical interpretations of Shabbath (e.g. the Sabbath Queen, the blessing of the Sabbath during the days of creation, etc.), decided to institute these practices which did not exist prior.
The blessings and recitations of Shabboth were originally only for the Creator of the world, and many authorities - who refrained from saying Esheth Hayil, singing Shalom Alekhem, and even from giving berakhoth to their children - felt that it should really have stayed the way it was originally.