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I was once told that there's a crypt in the Old City of Jerusalem near one of the gates (I forget which one), which houses the remains of a well-regarded non-Jew (once again, I forget the exact details), but that this doesn't pose an issue of Ohel because Ohel doesn't apply to non-Jewish remains.

Having been a student at the time and certainly not an expert in Tumah/Tohorah, nor a Kohen, I took this as fact without questioning it, until such time as I could learn these laws (which I still have not; at least not significantly more than before).

However, as I mentioned in this question, the Chicago Rabbinical Council has published an online Chicago tourism guide for Kohanim. This seems irrelevant, if not silly, if the remains are not Jewish - and many of the issues of concern seem to be related to remains that are almost certainly not Jewish (Egyptian mummies and the like).

So now I'm wondering if Ohel with non-Jewish remains actually does pose a problem for Kohanim.

More broadly, what Tumah issues do and don't apply to non-Jewish remains?

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It's just inside Shaar Yafo and "alleged" to be the architect of the walls under Sulaman. –  Double AA Sep 25 '13 at 4:50
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מועדים לשמחה. According to Tosafos (Y'vamos 61a, s.v. Mimaga), there is a machlokes between R' Shimon and the Chachamim, and we follow the sages who say they are מטמאין באהל. The Rambam (Shu"t 145) disagrees and holds that the Chachamim agree with R' Shimon that non-Jewish remains do not transmit tum'ah via ohel. Beit Yosef (YD 372:2; see also Sh"A, ibid.) discusses opinions of the rishonim on this and inclines toward the stringent view. –  Fred Sep 25 '13 at 5:48
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@Fred That's an answer. I was about to post "There is a good article here. Quote: DO THE REMAINS OF A NON-JEW CONVEY TUMAS MEIS? The remains of a non-Jew convey tumas meis if they are touched or carried. Although all agree that the halacha is that the remains of a non-Jew convey tumah through touching and carrying, there is a dispute as to whether the remains of a non-Jew convey tumas ohel. The Shulchan Aruch rules that it is proper to be stringent (Yoreh Deah 372:2)." –  Avrohom Yitzchok Sep 25 '13 at 10:38
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@Fred Good summary. Rav Moshe (can't find where) explains the words of Shulchan Aruch more leniently. –  WAF Sep 25 '13 at 12:34
    
Double AA, @Fred, et al, thank you. Would someone care to write up a full answer? –  Seth J Sep 25 '13 at 13:08
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