I bought the frame for my current sukkah from The Sukkah Project. Their 8x8 (expansions available) currently lists for $345, but that includes the walls. When I bought mine I ordered without walls (I already had material I could use) and that dropped the price noticeably, but I don't now remember by how much. You could email them and ask.
This sukkah goes together in less than an hour using no tools at all -- just slide poles into sockets and hand-tighten. The (wooden) roof slats have velcro loops on the ends to attach to the frame. I spend more time putting up walls and lights than I do on the frame and schach.
I've owned mine for about ten years and my roof-support slats are now noticeably bowed. (That one year with an early snow is probably relevant.) They still hold the schach up, but I'll probably replace them soon. They're just 1x2s, so the hardest parts will be (a) transporting 8' boards from the store and (b) getting hold of a staple-gun to apply the velcro.
I've upgraded my original cloth walls to lattice sheets like those sometimes used for fences. These come in 4x8 sheets and are lightweight enough that one person can carry two or three of them at a time. I store all this in the garage next to the patio where I set it up; if I had to carry things up and down basement stairs I wouldn't use the lattice.
These same people sell a kit for $75 for a wooden 8x12 sukkah, for which you have to buy the lumber (2x4s, 2x2s, and 1x2s). Since they don't say on their site what lumber you need I don't know what you should expect to pay to complete the project, but I'd be surprised if it exceeded your limit.
This was my second sukkah. My first one was a home-made concoction requiring no tools at all, definitely cheap but kind of rickety. It involved 2x2s, cinder blocks to hold the vertical poles, and rope to lash the corners together. (Screws would have been better, but I didn't have a drill at the time.) The walls were bedsheets in pretty designs that I bought for a dollar each at Goodwill. At the time I made it I had a wooden shed in the yard that I could use for one wall, and I attached a couple of eye-bolts to the side of it to help anchor things in place. That wasn't strictly necessary (I moved this sukkah to a new location and still used it), but it helped.