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If a person for whatever reason momentarily has a thought which denies God, but then afterwards reaffirms his belief in Hashem, is that an act of kefira? Does a momentary lapse in belief constitute a sin?

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Yes, but then he does teshuva right away – Shmuel Brin Aug 9 '13 at 1:21
From the title I thought this was Purim Torah. – Hacham Gabriel Aug 9 '13 at 1:39
@ShmuelBrin perhaps, but he may not know that he has sinned to do teshuva from. – not-allowed to change my name Aug 9 '13 at 3:16
I think a continuum problem does exist with this. If, for example, you think about the implications of whatever ideology and lose start to question the existence of God, does that somehow make you a kofer? I'm not sure, but I think acts of kefira have to be "premeditated." That is to say; someone, thought about God and came to a conclusion that He does not exist (or the Torah isn't received by Mosheh or whatever) and then actively behaved on that. A lapsing thought probably wouldn't count. – rosenjcb Aug 9 '13 at 4:32

thoughts and suggestions are constantly placed in one's mind by the yetzer hara, as explained extensively in shaar yichud hamaase chapter 5. This includes thoughts of kefira as explained there, if the yetzer thinks you are vulnerable to those. (see enticements #1-8 in the above link)

so according to that, certainly not. it's only what you do with the thoughts afterwards that can be considered "your" making. i.e. how you debate, conclude with the yetzer and decide how to live your life as explained there.

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