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Physiological context: The philtrum is the dip or groove in the middle of the upper lip below the nose (link). It is a feature of most mammals, thought to draw water from the mouth to the nose to keep the nose moist but is vestigial in humans. It is formed around the second month as the parts of the embryo's face grow together and meet there (link).

Anyway, I've heard that it is formed by an angel striking the lip just before a baby is born so it forgets all the Torah it learned in the womb. What is the source for this tradition? The best I found was Nidah 30B (PDF link) (point by point Daf Yomi link) which says, "Once he is born, an angel slaps him on the mouth, and he forgets everything." What is the link between that statement and it forming the philtrum? (I'm sure the chachamim would have seen the feature on stillborn fetuses, non-Jews, and maybe even noticed it on mammals, so it might not even make sense for them to say the angel forms the philtrum. I'm not sure if they do or don't; I'm asking for the source for the part of the tradition that says it changes the face.)

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I asked rabbi lopiansky explicitly, and edited in his answer. –  Baby Seal Apr 18 at 22:02
    
Related: judaism.stackexchange.com/q/37884 –  msh210 May 7 at 15:26
    
Are you accepting counter-proofs as answers (Other explanations of that Gemara in which it is not a source for this idea)? –  YeZ Nov 4 at 19:15

2 Answers 2

Rav Ahron Lopiansky seemed to dispell this myth as being an old bubby's tale in a lecture. His words were some thing along the lines of "Yiddishe bubbies say that this is the makeh, (slap)", while gesturing to his philtrum, with a smile on his face. I subsequently had a phone conversation in which I asked him directly for his stance. He said that he hasn't seen an explicit source for such an idea anywhere.

He said that what that gemara really means is that an angel grants us Ko'ach Ha'dibbur, the ability to speak and articulate and rationally think. We forget everything because up until this point everything we knew, we knew in a different, spiritual way. So we have to relearn it, in the state of this world which is a state of 'dibbur'.

If I remember correctly, I think he gave feelings and emotions sometimes brought on by music, (that can be difficult, or impossible to describe), as being an example of, or a parable for, how all of our knowledge was before birth.

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Re: music, the Manos halevi (by Rav Shlomo Alkabetz - contemporary of Rav Yosef Karo and author of Lecha Dodi) similarly writes that music calms children because it reminds their souls of the Heavenly music they were accustomed to. books.google.com/… –  Yoni May 7 at 15:46
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The Maharal in Gevuros Hashem ch. 28 is a good source for R' Lopiansky's explanation of what the Gemara really means. –  YeZ Nov 4 at 19:13

This blog post mentions that it appears in some collections of Jewish legends and the like, but not in any traditional Jewish sources.

R. Chaim Kanievsy (in this Kuntres on Chinuch) was asked whether or not woman are taught Torah in the womb, and pointing out that women also have a philtrum, and it seems like he uses this as a proof that the philtrum is not created because of the angel's hitting, though he isn't so clear.

R. Yithak Ratzabi, regarded by most to be the greatest Yemenite talmid chacham today, has an online discussion surrounding this question, and inter alia mentions that if this idea is to be taken literally, than women also learn the Torah in the womb. In fact, the Torah (or some form of it) is even taught to gentiles, as after all, they too have a philtrum. He assumes that its presence indicates that there was an angel who taught the fetus in utero (I'm not sure what he would say about other mammals, though).

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