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Christianity believes that God takes human shape in the form of Jesus, and comes down to earth as a man. Of course, Jews do not believe that God ever takes the shape of a human, but how do we know this? We are commanded not to make a graven image or likeness of God, but how do we know that God does not create a human likeness of himself?

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"Of course"? hashkafacircle.com/journal/R3_DS_Taku.pdf –  Double AA May 23 '13 at 13:33
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Because of the context of the question I believe it is significant to point out that Christian orthodoxies not only affirm that God takes the shape of a human but that God actually became a human by permanently adding a human nature as well as human form. –  Yirmeyahu May 23 '13 at 14:35
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4 Answers

The Rambam considered such an idea a violation of the Unity of God (Perush haMishnah, Introduction to Perek Chelek):

Principle III.
This is to accept that this Oneness that we have mentioned above (Principle II) is not a body and has no strength in the body, and has no shape or image or relationship to a body or parts thereof... And if He were to be a body then He would be like any other body and would not be God... This is the third pillar and is attested to by the verse, “For you saw no image” meaning that you did not see an image or any form when you stood at Sinai because as we have just said, He has no body, nor power of the body.

http://www.mesora.org/13principles.html

This is also a simple understanding of the passuk the Rambam quotes. Do not create any image or form of God since you saw no image, i.e. God does not take any physical form, so it would be a terrible thing to create such a false image.

טו ונשמרתם מאוד, לנפשותיכם: כי לא ראיתם, כל-תמונה, ביום דיבר י'ה'וה אליכם בחורב, מתוך האש. טז פן-תשחיתון--ועשיתם לכם פסל, תמונת כל-סמל: תבנית זכר, או נקבה ...

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That which is Eternal, by definition, cannot be preceded by anything. Hence, the Eternal cannot be preceded by any framework of existence.

G-d does not exist inside some framework of existence, like our bodies exist in spacetime. Rather, He is the existence and also the framework of existence of everything. Both things simultaneously. Hence there cannot be anything or anywhere devoid of Him. A body implies some kind of "place" where He is and another place where He is not and this is impossible in light of the above. source shaar yichud of chovos halevavos as I understand it.

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Fine answer by Ariel K... Here's some more sources to supplement it:

1) Malachi 3:6 : "I am the Lord, I have not changed...". That God hasn't changed also implies the impossibility of taking on physical form, which would necessarily imply change. (Of course, the human body, indeed all physical matter are in the state of constant flux, which also precludes the possibility of immutability.)

2) Numbers 23:19: God is not a man...

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Shaar haYichud in the Chovos HaLevavos, in its entirety. Essential.

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Can you include a summary? –  Double AA Oct 18 '13 at 14:19
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