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Does anyone have a source for the suggestion that:

If all Israel respected the Sabbath if only one single day, the Messiah would come immediately, for it is written: “Today if you were to listen to his voice”?

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Where did you find that quotation? – Double AA May 17 '13 at 16:23

I found this but it doesn't exactly say the logic you listed in the question

Shemot Rabba 25:121; Yerushalmi, Ta’anit 1:10 “Though I have set a limit to ‘the end,’ that it will happen in its time regardless of whether they will do teshuvah or not… the scion of David (Mashiach) will come if they keep just one Shabbat, because the Shabbat is equivalent to all the mitzvot.”

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א"ר לוי אילו היו ישראל משמרין שבת אחת כתיקנה מיד היה בן דוד בא מאי טעמא (שמות טז) ויאמר משה אכלוהו היום כי שבת היום לה' וגומר חד יום. ואומר (ישעיהו ל) בשובה ונחת תושעון בשובה ונייח תתפרקון: mechon-mamre.org/b/r/r2901.htm – Double AA May 17 '13 at 16:40

די באקאנטע גמרא אין מסכת שבת (קיח ע"א)אמר רשב"י אלמלא שמרו ישראל שני שבתות מיד הן נגאלים, שנאמר כה אמר ה' לסריסים וכו' מה כתיב בתריה, והביאותים א

The gemoro in shabbos 118A says if two shabbosim are kept the geula will come.

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I think the idea is that they all kept the first shabbat, and so there is only one shabbat left to keep. – Menachem May 17 '13 at 23:29
@Menachem I heard the same explanation for that Gemara, though IMHO it doesn't really seem to be saying that – Matt Jul 14 '14 at 22:52
No source for this, but I recall something about how it would now take 2 shabbats, since we are in galut all over the world, and so not everyone can physically keep shabbas at exactly the same time. – Nic Dec 17 '14 at 14:03
@Matt I heard once that the two are Shabbat and Shemita (שבת הארץ). Makes much more sense because 1) it's not just doing a certain mitzva a random number of times 2) Shemitta is mentioned in the Tochekha (ותרץ את שבתותיה) as something that we need Galut for not keeping. – Double AA Apr 19 at 20:39
@DoubleAA the Radak heard that too, in the name of his father. I also like that comparison, but I have to admit that it still seems a bit strange to me that in the context of discussing the many rewards for keeping Shabbos Bereishis, suddenly one use of the word "Shabbos" is also meant to refer to Shemitta. But I'm not one to argue on R. Moshe Kimhi – Matt Apr 20 at 5:02

I found the Gemorrah to be Shabbos 118B not 118A, Rashi in Bamidbar, at the end of Shelach says that the Jews had already kept one Shabbos, before the story of the Mekoshesh Etzim - wood gatherer, so it makes sense to say that this would be meaning - should the Jews keep one more Shabbos (a total of two), the Geula would come.

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Hey YBK, welcome to Mi Yodeya! Thanks for your answer (+1). You might want to consider registering your account, which will give you access to more of the site's features. I hope to see you around! – Shokhet Dec 16 '14 at 23:29

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