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The requirement when saying the name 'Havayeh' to have in mind both the meaning of 'adon ha-kol' and 'hayah hoveh ve-yihyhe' takes me some time: longer than almost anybody I see in shul taking to pronounce the words, including people who are careful about mitzvot. So, is this really halakhically required to fulfill the mitzvah? Or is it something other than a requirement? Also, am I approaching it the wrong way--I mean is it something other than mentally pronouncing those definitions at the points where one mentions the name?

Sources: שולחן ערוך אורח חיים ה

כשיזכיר השם, יכוין פירוש קריאתו באדנות שהוא אדון הכל, ויכוין בכתיבתו ביו"ד ה"א שהיה והוה ויהיה

ובביאור הגר"א כתב דלפי עומק הדין א"צ לכוין אלא פי' קריאתו דבכל מקום הולכין אחר הקריאה אף שיש בהכתיבה סודות גדולות לבד בקריאת שמע שם 'צריך לכוין ג"כ שהיה וכו

Also, I've seen quoted than one should minimally have in mind Rashi's pshat on the posuk. Again: is that an absolute requirement? Many other understandings of the verse have been offerred: could one think about another understanding and fulfill the requirement of kavvannah?

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You ask:

Also, am I approaching it the wrong way--I mean is it something other than mentally pronouncing those definitions at the points where one mentions the name?

The idea isn't to "mentally pronounc[e] those definitions at the points where one mentions the name". It's to have the ideas (not the words expressing the ideas) in mind. So when saying the name, you think that it refers to someone who is the master over all and is eternal (or beyond time). (And that doesn't take so much time.)

This is obvious to me, and I think is implied by the wording of the Shulchan Aruch. Although

יכוין בברכות פירוש המלות. כשיזכיר השם יכוין פירוש קריאתו באדנות שהוא אדון הכל ויכוין בכתיבתו ביו״ד ה״א שהיה והוה ויהיה.‏

is perhaps ambiguous, I think that (the continuation)

ובהזכירו אלקים יכוין שהוא תקיף בעל היכולת ובעל הכחות כלם.‏

is clearly referring to thinking about God's being almighty rather than to thinking about the words that mean He is; likewise I think that the Mishna B'rura's

ובמקום שנכתב בא״ד לכו״ע אין צריך לכוין אלא שהוא אדון הכל

is clearly referring to thinking about His mastery and not about words that signify His mastery.

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