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I've heard there is an opinion that the daled cosos by the Pesach Seder are m'doraisa. What is the source for this (if there is one? I vaguely remember a source being in the Yerushalmi?)

What Seforim speak about this? Are there any nafkei minah that are brought or discussed?

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During the shabbos hagadol drasha this year (5774) our rav mentioned the statement that each of the arba kosos is regarded as a separate mitzva. He stated that many mitzvos must be performed 'al hakos'. Thus the cups themselves are not mi'd'oraisa, but the mitzva they are drunk for are torah prescribed. Other mitzvos that are required al hakos are bris milah, birchat hamazon, or kiddush hayom.

The four mitzvos in hagaddah are kiddush hayom, magid, birchat hamazon, and hallel. Each mizvah has a bracha said al hakos for that mitzvah.

In the case of the question as asked it would appear that the answer would be "no", in one sense, and "yes" in another sense. That is, it is not the matter of the cups themselves that is from the torah, but the associated mitzva. Then again, perhaps the association may be what is being asked about (that is is the association of kos with the mitzva from the torah)

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Also Birchos Erusin, Nissuin, Dam Betulin, Pidyon haBen, Tanchumei Avelim, and Havdala. –  Double AA Apr 13 at 2:29
@DoubleAA yes, I just gave the most obvious. I suppose I should have included havdalah 'as if that makes a difference' (:-) especially as we "just" made havdalah. –  sabbahillel Apr 13 at 2:46
How exactly does this answer the question? –  Double AA Apr 13 at 14:33
@DoubleAA The rav said that the kos itself is not a matter of min hatorah, but the mitzvah that is said al hakos is what is being considered. Thus, when the Magen Avraham (for example) says that they are four separate mitzvos, then it is the mitzvah that it is attached to that is min hatorah or not. Thus, since birchat hamazon is min hatorah and it is said al hakos, then you would say that that kos is min hatorah. similarly kiddush hayom, magid and hallel. His main discussion was about bracha rishona and brachah acharona and about the hefsek involved in kiddush bemakom seudah. –  sabbahillel Apr 13 at 16:08
But are there any opinions who say the cups themselves are Deoraita? –  Double AA Apr 13 at 16:24
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